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Author: Karolina Zielińska
E-mail: karolina9krln@gmail.com
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 448–449
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018222
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018220.pdf

Abstract:

The paper reports from the proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference on Israeli Studies Israeli Identities: Past, Present and Future which took place at the University of Wrocław on September 10–12, 2017. The report reflects on the discussions which took place during plenary sessions of the conference and on the contents of the conference panels. Furthermore, it assesses the importance of this international event for the field of Israeli studies.

Tags: conference report European Israeli Studies Association israeli studies modern Israel international relations EAIS

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Author: Gideon Biger
E-mail: bigergideon@gmail.com
Institution: Tel Aviv University (Israel)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 439–447
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018221
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018221.pdf

Abstract:

Many suggestions have been presented for solving the Israeli – Palestinian dispute. As for now, none of those suggestions, presented during more than thirty years of negotiations, have been accepted by both sides. As for this, some new ideas have to be entered into the arena. Here some new, “out of the box”, geographical proposals are presented, based on actual events and geographical realities which exist in other areas. These proposals could be seen as un-human or politically wrong suggestions but as all other proposals were rejected, the decision makers of both sides, as well as the leaders of the world, can use the presented suggestion as a base for future negotiations.

Tags: Israel Palestine enclave national state Citizenship peace agreement

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Author: Angelika Adamczyk
E-mail: aadamczyk@uw.edu.pl
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 424–435
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018220
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018220.pdf

Abstract:

In this paper, I wish to present the complexity of Jewish-Polish relations from the 19th century until the interwar period, with emphasis on sociolinguistic issues. I will illustrate the circumstances of the contact between the Polish and Hebrew languages. Poles and Jews, who lived side by side, developed successful relationships, but mainly in the criminal underworld. That was reflected in a sociolect – a dialect of criminals that constituted a mixture of Polish, Yiddish, Russian, and several other languages, including quite a few Hebrew words, which with time adopted new meanings. Moreover, I  will provide some examples of Hebrew words used in Polish criminal jargon, as well as those which have been coined in every-day Polish. Then I will refer to some Hebrew words that are not connected with a world of crime and are still in use in spoken Polish.

Tags: sociolect criminal jargon Hebrew Polish-Jewish relations Polish language interlingual contacts spoken language

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Author: Michal Ben-Horin
E-mail: michal.ben-horin@biu.ac.il
Institution: Bar-Ilan University in Ramat-Gan (Israel)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 414–423
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018219
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018219.pdf

Abstract:

Immigration highlights the question of language and raises the dilemma of the relationship between the mother tongue and the language of the new land. For writers this question is even more crucial: should they write in the language of the place and its readers? Immigration to Israel is not exceptional, of course. What choices are open to those writers, and how are they to convey the complexities inherent in the formation of an Israeli identity? This paper focuses on two writers who demonstrate the role played by the “chosen language” in the cultural construction and deconstruction of Israeli identity. Tuvia Ruebner emigrated from Bratislava, Aharon Appelfeld from Bukovina. Ruebner shifted from German to Hebrew and back to German; Appelfeld wrote only in Hebrew. In both cases, their arrival in Israel enabled them to survive. However, the loss of their families in Europe continued to haunt them. Inspired by Walter Benjamin’s concept of ‘translation’ and responding to Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari’s concept of ‘minor literature’, the paper shows how their work conveys a multilayered interrelation between national and foreign languages, and between images of exile and homeland, past, present and future – all of which shed light on contemporary issues of Israeli identity.

Tags: immigration Franz Kafka Tuvia Ruebner Aharon Appelfeld Bilingualism modern Hebrew Literature

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Author: Liat Steir-Livny
E-mail: liatsteirlivny@gamil.com
Institution: The Open University of Israel (Israel)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 406–413
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018218
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018218.pdf

Abstract:

Israeli culture in the 1940s and 1950s was dominated by ideological considerations. Zionist films, as other aspects of Eretz-Israel and Israeli culture, distinctively propagated Zionist ideas. As a consequence of their sociopolitical focus, these films neglected the complexities of the relationship between Holocaust survivors and the native Jews in Eretz Israel. Instead, Holocaust survivors were reduced to a homogeneous entity that bore distinct negative connotations. Films depicted female Holocaust survivors as mentally unstable, unfit mothers, and often played up negative sexual stereotypes. In these films, the women were “cured” or went through a process of “purification” thanks to the Zionist establishment. Historical research often cites the trial of Adolf Eichmann (1961) as being a turning point in the Israeli public’s perception of the Holocaust, and its representation in Israeli culture. This article will focus on an analysis of the film The Hero’s Wife (Peter Frye, 1963) that was produced in the aftermath of the trial. It will discuss the innovative representations of this unresearched film and will seek to answer the questions of why, and in what way, its narrative comprises a subversive antithesis to the narrative shaped by Zionist fiction films made prior to the Eichmann trial.

Tags: Holocaust cinema Holocaust survivors The Eichmann trial Holocaust commemoration

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Author: Shira Stav
E-mail: stavsh@bgu.ac.il
Institution: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 390–405
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018217
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018217.pdf

Abstract:

My essay discusses a new attempt in young Israeli novels to break out of the suffocation and stagnation of the dominant literary protagonist. The discussion revolves around Ilai Rowner’s recent novel, Deserter (2015), which suggests ‘desertion’ as an option of to overcome nationalized structures of the self and of break new ground for its existence. The protagonist’s escape and a quest for a non-national position are destined to failure, however, reflecting the current state of political consciousness among young Israeli authors, and, I argue, the unthinkability of political exile in contemporary Israeli novels. The discussion presented here follows the renewed interest in Hanna Arendt’s exemplary essay “We Refugees” (1943) in light of the current refugees’ crisis in Europe among scholars such as Giorgio Agamben, Amal Jamal and Itamar Mann. While Agamben develops a phenomenology of being-a-refugee, severing the bond between nation and territory, his work lacks an experiential account of being a refugee. In light of this absence, I argue that Rowner’s protagonist remains blind to the particular identities he encounters, actively erasing the profound differences between deserters and refugees, persecutors and persecuted. While he recognizes the haunted element in him, Rowners’ protagonist’s obliviousness to the specific experiential trappings of his own story effectively sterilizes the novel’s political acuity through the effort to adopt an all-human perspective.

Tags: refugees Contemporary Israeli Literature Israeli Nationality Desertion Hanna Arendt Giorgio Agamben

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Author: Jagoda Budzik
E-mail: jagoda.budzik@uwr.edu.pl
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 379–389
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018216
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018216.pdf

Abstract:

The paper aims at recognizing and describing the ways of deconstructing the topos of Poland as a Jewish necropolis, a process that in the last decade appears more and more often in the works of Israeli authors of the third generation after the Shoah. The generation concept – as I argue – can serve here as a useful tool for understanding the shift which occurred in the specific national context of Israeli Holocaust discourse and strongly influenced the image of Poland in Israeli literature and culture. Poland depicted as a Jewish necropolis has become one of the central motifs present in Israeli literary as well as the artistic canon of Shoah representations. As the central space where the Shoah occurred, Poland was obviously perceived as a land marked by death and formed exclusively by the experience of the Holocaust. However, in the aftermath of two major shifts that have occurred in the last decades: a meaningful change in the Israeli Holocaust discourse and the new reality of Poland after 1989, and also as a consequence of the growing time distance separating yet another generation from the events themselves, numerous authors born in Israel mostly in the 1970s and in the 1980s began approaching the above-mentioned motif critically. This tendency, one of the few typical for the third generation, is demonstrated either through the motif ’s deconstruction and subversive usage or, more radically, by employing the genre of alternate history and changing the place’s identity (e.g. Tel Aviv by Yair Chasdiel). The topos of Poland as a necropolis has therefore been turned into a part – or even a starting point – of the reflection on collective memory patterns (e.g. Kompot. The Polish-Israeli Comic Book), stereotypes (e.g. Bat Yam by Yael Ronen), and on the authors’ own roots and identity (e.g. The Property by Rutu Modan). By analyzing the abovementioned texts, I will explore the process of constant interaction occurring between collective and the individual memory, between the Israeli national perspective and Polish landscapes, between an author and space and, finally – between the category of the third generation and its representatives themselves.

Tags: Israel Holocaust memory Israeli literature topos of Poland topos of cemetery third generation

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Author: Teresa Marcinów
E-mail: ppsy@marszalek.com.pl
Institution: Wrocław University of Science and Technology (Poland)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 368–378
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018215
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018215.pdf

Abstract:

On one hand, Israel is a leader in the field of high-tech industry, but on the other, it remains a country focused on traditions. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is one of the most common treatments among many possibilities which were created in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Indeed, the number of Jewish women as intensive consumers of IVF has increased in the past few years. Due to the great importance of motherhood and raising families in Jewish tradition, Israel strongly supports health care procedures assisting Jewish adults in becoming parents. There is no doubt that for Jews life is the most precious value in its religious and political meaning, however, they are quite flexible in accommodating modern technologies in order to serve life. The State has historically focused on increasing birthrates and nowadays a woman’s biological clock is an important element not only in the context of matrilineal descent and for the answer to the question of Jews identity but it is also intervening as a part of the reproductive industry.

Tags: matrilineality Israel IVF new technologies reproductive technology

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Author: Fred Lazin
E-mail: lazin@bgu.ac.il
Institution: Ben Gurion University of the Negev (Israel)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 355–367
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018214
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018214.pdf

Abstract:

The JDC is an American Jewish organization that assists overseas Jewish communities in distress. It is responsible to “American Jewry” and those organizations that fund it. Bauer (1974, 19) argued that the JDC has been guided by its founding “pledge of impartiality – it steers clear of political involvements” and takes pride in being “probably the only really non-partisan organization in Jewish life.” This paper examines the role of the JDC in caring for Soviet émigrés who left on visas for Israel but chose to resettle elsewhere. They were known as “dropouts” (Noshrim in Hebrew). It also deals with the JDC policy toward recently settled Russian Jews who left Israel to resettle elsewhere. In its work with Soviet Jewish emigres did the JDC serve the interests of the Israeli government, its donors and or the emigres? Did the JDC abide by its pledge of impartiality? Did the JDC try to force them to resettle in Israel against their wishes? The paper focuses on the spring of 1976 when the number of dropouts outnumbered those resettling in Israel. This led to a joint committee of Israelis and American Jews to coordinate a response. The ‘freedom of choice’ debate ensued; should Soviet Jews resettle in Israel or have the freedom to choose where to resettle? The findings here are based on archival records in the JDC, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS), the CJF (Jewish federations) and the American Jewish Committee (AJC). The author also conducted interviews and reviewed secondary sources. The paper should contribute to a better understanding of the JDC and its past ties to Israel and the American Jewish community.

Tags: JDC dropouts refugees transmigrants resettlement organizations Jewish organizations Soviet Jews

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Author: Esther Yankelevitch
E-mail: estiyan@gmail.com
Institution: University of Haifa (Israel)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 346–354
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018213
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018213.pdf

Abstract:

Formation of agricultural education in high schools was a milestone in the early 20th-century history of Zionist education, and in the Jewish society in Mandatory Palestine in general. Agricultural education was a means of changing the character of the Jewish people by imparting agricultural knowledge and training. Candidates came from agricultural settlements, but mainly – and this was its uniqueness – they also came from the towns. In addition, agricultural education provided a framework for absorbing immigrant youth. This educational framework was, among other things, ideological because those who joined it were usually motivated by a desire to change the character of the Jewish society, return to the land and work it. The cost of funding agricultural schools was high for the local Jewish community, and therefore these schools remained dependent on private initiative and philanthropy. In spite of the widespread ideological support, not many students actually took part in agricultural education due to the high cost of tuition on the one hand, and the need to help support their own families on the other. It can also be said that during this period, parents who had the means to provide their children with higher education, favoured the “Gymnasium” high school model, which could lead to them engaging in other professions.

Tags: Agricultural education Mandatory Palestine Zionist ideology Jewish society high school identity

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