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Author: Wiesław Wacławczyk
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 7-15
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006001
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006001.pdf

Abstract:

One can hardly overestimate the meaning of freedom of speech in the European tradition. It dates back to the times of the ancient Greece, although it was only John Milton who wrote the first tract devoted to the subject in question. In his Areopagitica (1644), Milton skillfully defended the principle of a free flow of ideas by stressing out that an open and undisturbed clash of various information and opinions is a condition of discovering truth in life. The best-known and most frequently quoted fragment of Areopagitica reads: “And though all the winds of doctrine were let loose to play upon the earth, so Truth be in the ! eld, we do injuriously, by licencing and prohibiting to misdoubt her strength. Let her and Falsehood grapple; who ever knew Truth put to the wors, in a free and open encounter. Her confuting is the best and surest suppressing”.

Tags: international relations Europe history freedom of speech United States of America

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Author: Wojciech Stankiewicz
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland)
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 16-32
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006002
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006002.pdf

Abstract:

Among the kinds of CB Weapons, the chemical one might be considered as the one with the longest history of widespread warfare applicability, whereas the biological one as the developed problem of the recent two centuries but also having its roots in ancient eras. The consequences of the usage of CBs are acknowledged by the international conventions dealing with the CB phenomenon. Although the provisions provide solutions and declarations of the minimised usage of CB weapons as the method of warfare and the limited laboratory testing in accordance to the sake of all mankind, the problem still exists. Nowadays, it is especially discussed after the events of 11.09.2001, which brought about the airborne attack on the the two towers of the World Trade Centre in New York and the proceeding events of the Bacillus anthracis4 intoxication spread across the United States of America. 

Tags: international law Toxin Weapons

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Author: Arkadiusz Modrzejewski
Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 33-42
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006003
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006003.pdf

Abstract:

Karol Wojtyla (1920–2005), later to become Pope John Paul II (since 1978), was one of the greatest contemporary thinkers. He was a Christian philosopher and Catholic theologian. His thought exerted an in! uence on diverse generations and representatives of many cultures, religions and nations. He was an authority not only for Catholics but also for many infidels and even atheists. He often made controversies because of His firm opinions. He was an aim of liberal as well as conservative critique. The liberals criticized Him due to His uncompromising and conservative attitude to female priesthood, homosexuality, contraception and abortion. The conservatives accused Him of apologizing and conciliatory tone of His voice in relationships with other religions, especially with Jews and Muslims. Because these parts of His thought became most controversial, they were and usually are commented on and analysed by world mass media. But few people found Him a leading contemporary theoretician of civilization despite the fact that He constructed a coherent theory of civilization that is unfortunately distracted in His numerous papers. And my article is dedicated to this theory. I would like to present the core of His civilization’s conception.

Tags: social problems philosophy Pope John Paul II

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Author: Dorota Pietrzyk–Reeves
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków (Poland)
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 43-64
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006004
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006004.pdf

Abstract:

The model of deliberative democracy poses a number of dificult questions about individual rationality, public reason and justification, public spiritedness, and an active and supportive public sphere. It also raises the question about what kind of civic involvement is required for the practices of democratic deliberation to be effective. The aim of this article is to examine the last question by looking at the role and value of citizenship understood in terms of participation. It argues that deliberative democracy implies a category of democratic citizens; its institutional framework calls for the activity and competence of citizenry, and consequently, the participatory forms of deliberative democracy come closest to the democratic ideal as such. Also, the model of participatory-deliberative democracy is more attractive as a truly democratic ideal than the model of formal deliberative democracy, but it certainly faces more dificulties when it comes to the practicalities, and especially the institutional design. This problem is raised in the last section of the article where the possible applicability of such a model to post-communist democracies is addressed. The major dificulty that the participatory-deliberative model poses for the post-communist democratization can be explained by a reference to the cultural approach towards democratization and to the revised modernization theory presented by Inglehart and Welzel. The problem of the applicability of such a model in the post-communist context seems to support the thesis presented here which suggests that active citizenship, civic skills and civic culture are indispensable for the development of deliberative politics.

Tags: democracy Citizenship deliberative democracy models of democracy

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Author: Hiltrud Nassmacher
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 65-83
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006005
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006005.pdf

Abstract:

The pressure for reforms is similar in all established democracies, including Germany. This is true for all policies. Lower income caused by economic development and ageing societies is a burden on all budgets. ! is increases the pressure on political actors to speed up the decision-making process. In 2005 the grand coalition of CDU/CSU and SPD was welcomed by the German people. Many commentators assumed that the political deadlock would be overcome by the government of the two major parties. Because the second chamber (Bundesrat) is the major veto-player in the German federal system, the current CDU/CSU majority in the Bundesrat was a high hurdle for the former red-green government (1998 to 2005), as until 2006 about 80 percent of all laws had to pass the second chamber. This led to early elections. People hope that the grand coalition under Chancellor Angela Merkel will overcome this restriction, which the SPD-led government could not evade. 

Tags: politics Germany Grand Coalition

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Author: Iwona Hofman
Institution: Marie Curie-Skłodowska University of Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 84-96
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006006
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006006.pdf

Abstract:

Let us not concern ourselves with speculations whether Jerzy Giedroyć, when he founded the Literary Institute in 1947 and soon a€ erwards published the first issue of “Kultura”, already suspected that his two creations (especially the magazine) would play such an important role in shaping political ideas of Polish exiles and become his true magnum opus. ‚The fact remains that in spite of its distance from the centers of Polish immigration, the government in exile, and the large Polish immigrant community, the new monthly, while still looking for new contributors and readers, and remaining in opposition to Mieczysław Grydzewski’s “Wiadomości” - which sought to cultivate pre-war traditions - quickly achieved the unquestionable status of a platform for free speech, a forum for the bold exchange of views (these o€ften being unpopular and going against the dri€ft of Polish public opinion in the West), and a leading channel of communication with the homeland. Even though the subtitle (Sketches. Short Stories. Reports) hinted at the editorial sta„ff’s interest in literature, “Kultura” from day one tackled di… cult geopolitical and political problems arising from the situation in post-war Europe. Its publications were characterized by topicality and realistic assessments, which can be clearly seen while studying consecutive annual sets, for example with regard to the process of European unification.

Tags: United Europe geopolitical Parisian "Kultura"

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Author: Beata Ociepka
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 97-107
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006007
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006007.pdf

Abstract:

Populism became a signi! cant factor of political debates in Eastern and Western countries of the EU and a new force in European party systems in the nineties. The frame for the discussion on populism is made by the representative form of democracy and responding to it dual system of media of communication. The popularity of populist parties and movements nowadays reflects the crisis of representative democracy. It is accompanied by the growing role of media in politics, which might be seen as the result of citizens’ dissatisfaction with the existing models of intermediation. The media also play a crucial role in the process of identity creation, at the same moment they illustrate the dificulty of defining identity anew.

Tags: national identity politics European Union Populism

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Author: Andrzej Chodubski
Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 108-119
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006008
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006008.pdf

Abstract:

The formation of the global civil community causes the e€ acing of division into “the natives” and “the strangers” within the framework of individual states. Integration and unification processes give a new dimension to such notions as: emigration, diaspora and national identity. Emigration is more and more o‚ en comprehended as civilization phenomenon. Its positive economic, political and cultural advantages are the focus of attention; the countries that receive emigrants very o‚ften reap the economical benefits and the emigrants themselves solve the problems of unemployment in their own countries; migrational movements, on the other hand, help solve political and social problems, make the global integration, and mixing of cultural and civilization norms easier. Emigration itself helps to achieve cultural compromises, get used to mutual dissimilarities and accept di€fferences.

Tags: national identity Polish emigrants Emigration

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Author: Mirosława Skawińska
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 120-130
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006009
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006009.pdf

Abstract:

While entering the transformation period, Poland started changes in economics, which was run by the state and was characterized by the lack of market equilibrium and low degree of satisfying the nation’s needs. The change of the state’s role in the economic system became the major challenge for Poland, which started transformations of the system in 1989. The ending of this major phase of transformation can be gauged not only by the degree of state’s withdrawal from the role of the owner and a manager, and replacing this role by a stable set of systemic rules, but also by introducing new market organizing institutions and the degree of € nancial independence of economic entities from the domination of politics.

Tags: public policy Poland Policy Model Transformation Period

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Author: Ewa Suwara
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 131-139
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006010
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006010.pdf

Abstract:

In the first half of 2001 the US Department of State, following a request from the National Security Archive (a US non-governmental organisation), declassified documents relating to the Round Table negotiations, the presidential elections, the crisis over choice of a prime minister and the creation of government (coalition) in Poland in 1989. Those documents, highly confidential until their release, allow us to look at the most important events in the transformation in Poland from a different perspective, which has not yet been extensively analysed. In essence, they indicate the role of external factors which have influenced the political situation of Poland – the transformation and actual decomposition of communism. They include cables detailing the US embassy’s participation in, and its analysis of the events during Poland’s ‘revolution’.

Tags: Presidential Elections polish elections Transformation in Poland

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