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Author: Iwona Hofman
Institution: Maria Skłodowska-Curie University in Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 7-14
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011001
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011001.pdf

Abstract:

The term State appropriately reflects the dichotomous condition of contemporary journalism. The tension between the commercial and the functional side of the mass media leaves the journalist standing alone on the battlefiield facing a harsh dilemma to remain faithful to professional ethics or to give way to the pressure of ratings. In other words, striving to describe objectively, inform critically, and earnestly, leaves some space for your opponents or makes you dig out seemingly meaningful information and present it in the form of a factoid or a story that probably will not bring you closer to the truth but generates more buzz around the news and entertain the audience. It all comes down to a single choice – serious journalism versus tabloid journalism. In my opinion, it is a serious issue which has to be brought up in any discussion concerning the media. One can see it more clearly by looking closely at both notions. Serious journalism is responsible for its words, along with the awareness of the influence it has on the audience. Tabloid journalism, on the other hand, is marked by a nonchalant audience attitude. It is aware of its influence on the fans, but its impact is simplified compared to mass media doctrines, and comes down to the brutal slogan “riffraff would buy”. Though, not making a big fuss, it is worth saying that with journalism, having the meaning of a public service and letting down society, we are dealing with conflict of values and hitting rock bottom.

Tags: society Mass Media public media

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Author: Marta Dorenda
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 15-27
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011002
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011002.pdf

Abstract:

Political life in western democracies, even beyond the periods of subsequent elections, resembles permanent electoral campaign. All the actions of politicians and public relations of professionals are calculated to maintain supporters, attract hesitant citizens and persuade opponents. There is a common perception of media as a channel serving politicians, supported by spin doctors, to submit messages, aiming at achievement of political success. Analysis of changes in terms of communication and political marketing requires redefinition of classical categories operated by political marketing and communication, namely the notions of sender, message and receiver. While reformulating these categories, it is necessary to also analyze new tools and devices used by domains mentioned above. Presentation and explanation of their new content, definitions and relations between them leads to the conclusions concerning new role of media in the world dominated by high technologies.

Tags: new media social network

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Author: Alfred Lutrzykowski
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 28-42
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011003
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011003.pdf

Abstract:

This paper is not an attempt to present the process of political changes that occurred in Poland after the end of the Second World War. Its aim is to indicate and explain the characteristics of the process of political change which after 1945 turned Poland into a totalitarian socialist state, and from 1989 led to the construction of the democratic state. The fate of Poland and other Eastern European countries was decided by the strategic interests of the great powers. The memory of the victims of war and democratic axiology gave way to the calculations and domination of force. Many nations were deprived of subjectivity and the possibility of sovereign choice in their future development. In Poland the place of the sovereign nation had been taken by a small group of politicians who became the plenipotentiaries of the Soviet leadership. The creation of the totalitarian system was an essential precondition for the implementation of the Stalinist model of society entirely dominated by the Communist Party, the state described as socialist, and its apparatus of repression. The rule over the nation, although it was called the dictatorship of the proletariat, was a dictatorship over the enslaved society. Only the gradual erosion and finally the collapse of the centre of communist world, created in this part of Europe the possibility to choose freely the model of collective life. The victory of the Polish Solidarity and the fall of Berlin Wall alike symbolize the overcoming the post-Yalta order and the return of these nations to the European, democratic idea of social order. After 1989 the political solutions in which power is protecting the needs, interests and aspirations of each individual as well as the common good, considered the summum bonnum, were chosen. This power is by its very nature decentralised.

Tags: Polish politics political transformation history of Poland history of politics

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Author: Krystyna Leszczyńska
Institution: Maria Skłodowska-Curie University in Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 43-65
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011004
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011004.pdf

Abstract:

From this short, synthetic review of participation of Presidents in cabinet formation in 1989 – 1995 results that W. Jaruzelski was fully loyal towards processes of democratic changes in Poland. The position of the first, in the history of third RP, head of state was weakened by fiasco of C. Kiszczak mission of government formation; the politician indicated by the President appeared ineffective. But W. Jaruzelski accepted C. Kiszczak failure with dignity and he engaged himself in the process of formation of T. Mazowiecki cabinet although he had constitutional instruments to block it. “President Jaruzelski, Siwicki (Ministry of Defence) and I spread a protective umbrella over this Cabinet against »hardliners« in Poland and abroad.”. L. Wałęsa, benefiting from social consent, very actively took part in the process of formation of solidarity cabinets both before and after he became the head of state. He, with the substantive help of his closest and most trusted associate – prof Lech Falandysz – forced through a favourable for himself interpretation of art 61 of Small Constitution. Because of this, ministers from MoD, MIA, MFA in Pawlak and Oleksy’s Cabinets were appointed by the head of state. It should be stressed that L. Wałęsa helped to promote two prominent politicians: J.K Bielecki and W. Pawlak.

Tags: Polish politics political system political transformation

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Author: Andrzej Chodubski
Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 66-81
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011005
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011005.pdf

Abstract:

It is widely recognised, that the status of any scientific discipline is vitally determined by its methodological autonomy. These are theoretical rules on the acquirement of information about a given reality, its definitions, systematization, clarification and interpretation. It is a specific challenge with regards to political science, which stems from the subject of knowledge, the politics. This realm is known to humanity from the onset of structure-shaping and institutionalisation of social life, and since ancient times attempts at its theoretical clarification are being undertaken. It has taken an important place within philosophical thought, historical and legal analysis. This reality led to political science becoming an integrating platform for knowledge from areas of political and social philosophy, law, economy, history. This integration has made cognitive challenges superficial and as a consequence raised such questions as: is political science a scientific discipline? The unfavourable image was revealed as it was included in broad process of political education of society.

Tags: political science political theory politics

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Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 82-109
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011006
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011006.pdf

Abstract:

Male politicians are becoming increasingly aware of the fact that women have great power. Girls account for 50% of the population of school students. Women seem to be much better at handling the financial crisis than men. The recession primarily aftected the masculine part of business – widespread layoffs hit typically male industries, such as cars, tobacco, financial services. In the U.S., men account for 80% of people who lost jobs as the result of the recent crisis. Moreover, it is women that make most decisions relating to household expenses. They are also more inclined to save up for future. They typically spend money on things like education, healthcare, food and cosmetics. They also invest in their children’s future. At present, women have about $10.5 trillion at their disposal, while men have approximately $23.4 trillion. However, this disproportion is still getting smaller. The past decade saw the distance between these two worlds constantly diminish. Women control $12 trillion out of $18.4 trillion spent by consumers every year. Moreover, the increasing number of working women – as Michael J. Silverstein points – means that their income is increasing. 

Tags: political theory political transformation gender women in politics

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Author: Bartłomiej Michalak
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 110-121
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011007
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011007.pdf

Abstract:

Last decades of the past century, as well as the current one, may be characterized by the increase of political role of the movements that are called “the protest parties.” Scholars, journalists and politicians put a lot of attention to that phenomenon. However, it is focused just on selected elements of the problem. Beginning from the 1980s European public opinion may observe the rise and development of groups of ecologists. The unexpected electoral success of the new type of party is called “the New Populism.” Back in the 1990s it caused many concerns, opinions and discussions on the issue whether such parties are harmful for modern and stabilized western European democracies. At the turn of the century the political scene has been dominated by new forms of activity, which are the anti-globalization and alternative globalization movements.

Tags: political theory political parties party politics protest parties

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Author: Magdalena Musiał–Karg
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 122-137
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011008
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011008.pdf

Abstract:

Times are changing. The second half of the 19th century and the following years stood for rapid development of various tools based on electricity. Expansion of telecommunication and progress of electronic media constitute important elements of this period. It may be said, we now live in the Internet era, and there is a perception that anyone who does not jump on the technology bandwagon is going to be left far behind. The growth of online interactions can be observed by the inconceivable increase in the number of people with home PC and Internet access.

Tags: democracy new technologies electronic voting

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Author: Teresa Łoś–Nowak
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 138-155
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011009
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011009.pdf

Abstract:

At the turn of the 21st century, under the influence of “quick transformation” undergone by the international relations, we have rather to do with “a carnival” of theoretical approaches competing with each other. Undoubtedly, it hampers the discourse about the research area within the scope of what is usually de" ned as international relations, and about epistemological condition of the discipline with over 100 years of tradition. In this theoretical chaos there are being posed questions if the international relations are “clearly de" ned domain of intellectual reflection, if they have specific features distinguishing” them against other social sciences, or if it is possible to create universal mega-theory in the international, dynamic, diverse and energetic environment, and if yes, then further questions are appearing. They concern two issues: ontological beings around which the international relations, seen as “autonomous,” scientifically clear discipline, would consolidate, and methods of acquiring knowledge about it. Those who doubt, especially philosophers and sociologists, pose also questions if and how much it is possible to get objective knowledge, that is not burdened with the reflex of subjective system of values, ideas and experiences of a researcher.

Tags: international relations political system

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Author: Rafał Willa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 156-172
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011010
PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011010.pdf

Abstract:

Each enlargement of the European Communities (EC) and later the European Union (EU) has had an indisputable in! uence on inner cohesion of the organization itself. The participants of the integration processes have included the countries deviating from the previous Member States by the level of the economic development, the structures of their economies, macroeconomic conditions, etc. This differentiation has taken its toll especially on the functioning and the expenses of common policies (mainly transfer ones) as well as the execution of the integration reinforcement plans such as the European Economic and Monetary Union. In this aspect the most serious consequences were caused by the admission of countries that were much weaker economically, especially Ireland, Greece, Spain and Portugal. These countries had to go through a long way of reforms in order to become rightful members of the organization and for their integration with the Communities to become a mutual success. A big part of the expenses connected with these reforms was financed by the common budget thanks to the structural funds and the Common Agricultural Policy.

Tags: economy Poland European Union political economy

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