• facebook
Author: Grażyna Baranowska
E-mail 1: baranowska.g@gmail.com
Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)
Author: Aleksandra Gliszczyńska-Grabias
E-mail: a.gliszczynska@poczta.onet.pl
Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 97–109
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018107
PDF: ppsy/47-1/ppsy2018107.pdf

The “right to truth” relates to the obligation of the state to provide information about the circumstances surrounding serious violations of human rights. Despite its increasing recognition, the concept raises questions as to its scope and implementation as well as its existence as a free-standing right. Similarly, “memory laws” relate to the way states deal with their past. However, there are certain „memory laws” that, while officially serving as a guarantee for accessing historical truth, lead to its deformation. As a result, an “alternative” truth, based on the will of the legislators, is being imposed. In this article, the authors elaborate on the general nature of the new legal phenomenon of the „right to truth”, as a tool of transitional justice, in particular in the context of both providing and abusing historical truth by the legislators, through the instrument of “memory laws”.

 

Disclaimer: The research was conducted as part of the project "Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspective (MELA)". This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 649307. The project "Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspective" is financially supported by the HERA Joint Research Programme (www.heranet.info) which is co-funded by AHRC, AKA, BMBF via DLR-PT, CAS, CNR, DASTI, ETAg, FWF, F.R.S. - FNRS, FWO, FCT, FNR, HAZU, IRC, LMT, MIZS, MINECO, NWO, NCN, RANNĺS, RCN, SNF, VIAA, VR and the European Commission through Horizon 2020

References:

  • Additional Protocol to the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 Concerning the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts.
  • Appleton, J. (2013, April 3). “Freedom for history? The case against memory laws”. Free Speech Debate. Retrieved from: http://freespeechdebate.com/discuss/freedom-for-history-the-case-against-memory-laws/
  • Belavusau, U., & Gliszczyńska-Grabias, A. (2017). “Memory Laws: Mapping a New Subject in Comparative Law and Transitional Justice”. In U. Belavusau & A. Gliszczyńska-Grabias (Eds.) Law and Memory: Addressing Historical Injustice through Law (pp. 1–26). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2017.
  • Brunner, J., & Stahl, D. (2016). Recht auf Wahrheit. Zur Genese eines neuen Menschenrechts. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag.
  • Davis, M. (2005), “Is Spain Recovering Its Memory? Breaking the Pacto del Olvido”. Human Rights Quarterly, 27(3), pp. 858–880.
  • Encarnacion, O.G. (2007/2008). “Pinochet’s Revenge: Spain Revisits Its Civil War”. World Policy Journal, 24(4), pp. 39–50.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Association “21 December 1989” and others v. Romania, no. 33810/07, judgment of 24 May 2011.
  • European Court of Human Rights, El-Masri v. the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, no 39630/09, Grand Chamber judgment of 13 December 2012.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Al-Nashiri v. Poland, no. 28761/11, judgment of 24 July 2014.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Abu Zubaydah v. Poland, no. 7511/13, judgment of 24 July 2014.
  • Federal Law 80-FZ of 19 May 1995 “On the Entrenchment of the Victory of the Soviet People in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945”; unofficial translation of the law retrieved from: http://cis-legislation.com/document.fwx?rgn=70802.
  • Garibian, S. (2014). “Ghosts Also Die. Resisting Disappearance through the ‘Right to the Truth’ and the Juicios por la Verdad in Argentina”. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 12, pp. 515-538.
  • Gliszczyńska-Grabias, A., & Baranowska, G. (2016). “The European Court of Human Rights on Nazi and Soviet Past in Central and Eastern Europe”. Polish Political Science Yearbook, 45, pp. 117–129. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016009.
  • Heinze, E. (2017). “Epilogue: Beyond ‘Memory Laws’: Towards a General Theory of Law and Historical Discourse”. In U. Belavusau & A. Gliszczyńska-Grabias (Eds.) Law and Memory: Addressing Historical Injustice through Law (pp. 413–434). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2017.
  • Human Rights Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Selimovic v. Republika Srpska (the ‘Srebrenica Cases’), 7 March 2003
  • Koncewicz, T.T. (2017). “On the Politics of Resentment, Mis-memory, and Constitutional Fidelity. The Demise of the Polish Overlapping Consensus?”. In U. Belavusau & A. Gliszczyńska-Grabias (Eds.) Law and Memory: Addressing Historical Injustice through Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2017, pp. 263-290.
  • Kovras, I. (2017). Grassroots Activism and the Evolution of Transitional Justice the Families of the Disappeared. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ley 52/2007, de 26 de diciembre, por la que se reconocen y amplían derechos y se establecen medidas en favor de quienes padecieron persecución o violencia durante la guerra civil y la dictadura.
  • Mac-Gregor E. F. (2016). “The Right to the Truth as an autonomous right under the Inter-American Human Rights System”. Mexican Law Review, 9, pp. 121–139.
  • Malksoo, M. (2017). “Ukraine’s Decommunisation Laws: A Hard Case for the EU Policy on Transitional Justice?”. EUSA Fifteenth Biennial Conference, Miami, May 4–6, 2017.
  • Mendez, J.E., & Bariffi F J. (2012). “Right to truth”. In R. Wolfrum (Ed.) Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Motyka, G. (2011). Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji Wisła. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Literackie.
  • Naqvi, Y. (2006). “The right to truth in international law: fact or fiction?”. International Review of the Red Cross, 862, pp. 245–273.
  • Naftali, P. (2016). “Crafting a “Right to Truth” in International Law: Converging Mobilizations, Diverging Agendas?”. Champ penal/Penal field, Vol XII (2016). Retrieved from: https://champpenal.revues.org/9245
  • Naftali, P. (2017) “The ‘Right to Truth’ in International Law: the ‘Last Utopia’?”. In Belavusau, U. & Gliszczyńska-Grabias, A. (eds.) Law and Memory: Addressing Historical Injustice through Law (pp. 70–88). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2017.
  • “Niemieckie obozy koncentracyjne. Interwencje” (July 2017). Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych. Retrieved from:  http://www.msz.gov.pl/pl/polityka_zagraniczna/niemieckie_obozy_koncentracyjne/interwencje_msz/
  • Nowak-Far A., & Zamęcki Ł. (2015). Defective codes of memory. How the memory of international crimes is distorted in public discourse, Warszawa: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland.
  • Perez Solla, M.F. (2006). Enforced Disappearances in International Human Rights. Jefferson & London: McFarland.
  • Projekt ustawy z o zmianie ustawy o Instytucie Pamięci Narodowej – Komisji Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, ustawy o grobach i cmentarzach wojennych, ustawy o muzeach, ustawy o odpowiedzialności podmiotów zbiorowych za czyny zabronione pod groźbą kary oraz ustawy o zakazie propagowania komunizmu lub innego ustroju totalitarnego przez nazwy budowli, obiektów i urządzeń użyteczności publicznej. (August, 2016). Retrieved from:  http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/druki8ka.nsf/projekty/8-020-307-2016/$file/8-020-307-2016.pdf
  • Report of the independent expert to update the Set of principles to combat impunity, Diane Orentlicher. Updated Set of principles for the protection and promotion of human rights through action to combat impunity, E/CN.4/2005/102/Add.1.
  • Report of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, Mission to Spain, A/HRC/27/49/Add.1, para. 21.
  • Right to truth, Report of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, A/HRC/5/7.
  • Salsench i Linares S. (2013).“Francoism Facing Justice. Enforced Disappearances before Spanish Courts”. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 11(2), pp. 463–483.
  • Sierp, A. (2014). History, Memory and Trans-European Identity: Unifying Divisions. New York: Routledge.
  • “The Case of Vladimir Luzgin” (2016). www.globalfreedomcofexperssion.columbia.edu. Retrieved from: https://globalfreedomofexpression.columbia.edu/cases/case-vladimir-luzgin/
  • The Law on the Condemnation of the Communist and National Socialist (Nazi) Regimes, and Prohibition of Propaganda of Their Symbols (2015, 26, 219). Retrieved from: http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/317-viii
  • The Law on the Legal Status and Honouring the Memory of Fighters for Ukraine’s Independence in the Twentieth Century (2015, Nr 25;190). Retrieved from: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/314-viii.
  • The Law on Perpetuation of the Victory over Nazism in World War II of 1939-1945. 2015, Nr 25; 191. Retrieved from: http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/315-viii.
  • The Law on Access to Archives of Repressive Organs of the Totalitarian Communist Regime, 1917-1991. 2015, r 26; 218). Retrieved from: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/316-viii
  • Urdillo, U. (2011/2012). “Impunity for enforced disappearances in contemporary Spain: the Spanish search for truth”. Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Rights Law, 6(1), pp. 41–60.
  • Ustawa z dnia 18 grudnia 1998 o Instytucie Pamięci Narodowej - Komisji Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu. Dziennik Ustaw, 155, 1016.
  • “Wołyń 1943 – rozliczenie” (2010). Retrieved from: https://ipn.gov.pl/pl/publikacje/ksiazki/12810,Wolyn-1943-rozliczenie-Materialy-przegladowej-konferencji-naukowej-W-65-rocznice.html

 

Message to:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart

Korzystając z naszej strony, wyrażasz zgodę na wykorzystywanie przez nas plików cookies . Zaktualizowaliśmy naszą politykę przetwarzania danych osobowych (RODO). Więcej o samym RODO dowiesz się tutaj.