• facebook
Author: Anna Kobierecka
E-mail: akobierecka@uni.lodz.pl
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 105-120
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017107
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017107.pdf

The aim of the article is to examine whether Nordic area can be regarded as a homogenous and successfully cooperating region, which is providing one unified political front. Considering many similarities between Nordic states, as for example shared values (equality, women rights, common love of democracy, peace and welfare state), one could say that Nordic states constitute a single and unitary area. What is more, the linguistic, cultural and historical closeness of those states is a fact, but at the same time many differences can be pointed, especially considering their security and foreign policies. Those aspects seem to be the main obstacle in introducing full cooperation in the region. Nevertheless, it is worth noticing that current international developments and appearance of new threats to security are influencing the Nordic states which, as a result, are changing their attitudes towards security policy. Those factors could lead to introducing new dimensions of their cooperation. 

References:

  • Allison, R. (1985). Finland's Relations with the Soviet Union, 1944-84. London: Macmillan Press.
  • Archer, C. (2004). Norway outside the European Union. Norway and European integration from 1994 to 2004. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Archer, C. (2007). New Security Issues in Northern Europe: The Nordic and Baltic States and the ESDP. London: Routledge.
  • Arter, D. (1993). The Politics of European Integration in the Twentieth Century. Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing.
  • Bailes, A.J.K. (2012). “The Nordic Countries from War to Cold War - and Today”. Scandinavian Journal of History, 37(2), pp. 156-163.
  • Berg, R. (2014). “Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1814. A geopolitical and contemporary perspective”. Scandinavian Journal of History, Vol. 39), pp. 265-286.
  • Bergman, M. U. (1999). “Do Monetary Unions Make Economic Sense? Evidence from the Scandinavian Currency Union, 1873-1913”. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 101(3), p. 363-377.
  • Blank, S. J. (1996). Finnish Security and European Security Policy. Carlisle: Army War College Strategic Studies Institute.
  • Browning, C. S. (2008). Constructivism, Narrative and Foreign Policy Analysis. Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Cieślak, T. (1978). Zarys historii najnowszej krajów skandynawskich. Warszawa: PWN.
  • Dosenrode, S. (2004). “Introduction: The Nordic Regions and the European Union”. In S. Dosenrode & H. Halkier, (Eds.), The Nordic Regions and the European Union (pp. 1-6). Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Dośpiał-Borysiak, K. (2007). Państwa nordyckie a Unia Europejska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Sejmowe.
  • “Finnish Security and Defence Policy” (2009). Government Report, Prime Minister’s Office Publication, 13.
  • Gebhart, C. (2013). “Soft Competition: Finland, Sweden and the Northern Dimension of the European Union”. Scandinavian Political Studies, 36(4), pp. 365-390.
  • Gourlay, C., & Remacle, E. (1998). “The 1996 IGC”. In K.A. Eliassen (Ed.), Foreign and Security Policy in the European Union (pp. 59-93). London: Sage.
  • Grzela, J. (2014). “Płaszczyzny i kierunki współpracy nordyckiej”. Kielce: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach.
  • Grzela, J. (2015). “Wybrane aspekty współpracy wojskowej krajów nordyckich”. In M. Tomala & M. Łuszczuk (Eds.), Północ w międzynarodowej przestrzeni politycznej i gospodarczej (pp. 123-142). Kielce: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach.
  • Henriksen, I., & Kærgard, N. (1995), “The Scandinavian Currency Union 1875-1914”. In J. Reis (Ed.), International Monetary Systems in Historical Perspective (pp. 91-113). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Henzel, P. (2015.03.15). “Na linii frontu. Finlandia i Szwecja przystąpią do NATO? Adaktusson: Neutralność przechodzi do przeszłości”. Onet.pl. Retrived from http://wiadomosci.onet.pl/tylko-w-onecie/na-linii-frontu-finlandia-i-szwecja-przystapia-do-nato-adaktusson-neutralnosc/syy72m
  • Hilde, P.S. (2014). “Nordic-Baltic security and defence cooperation: the Norwegian perspective”. In A.S. Dahl & P. Jaervenpeaea (Eds.), Northern Security and Global Politics: Nordic-Baltic strategic influence in a post-unipolar world (pp.93-107). Oxon: Routledge.
  • Ingebritsen, I., & Larsson, S. (1997), “Interest and Identity: Finland, Norway and the European Union”. Cooperation and Conflict, 32(2), pp. 207-222.
  • Jussila, O., Hentilä, S., & Nevakiki, J. (2001). Historia polityczna Finlandii 1809-1999. Kraków: Universitas.
  • Kaplan, L.S. (2004). NATO divided, NATO united. The evolution of an alliance. London: Praeger.
  • Karlsson B. (2009). “Neutrality and Trade - Swedish Trade Policy During War and Peace”. In H. Lundtofte, M. Jensen, F. Just (Eds.), War and Society In Scandinavia 1914-1950 (pp. 61-80) Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark.
  • Kelstrup, M. (2014). “Denmark’s relation to the European Union. A history of dualism and pragmatism”. In L. Miles & A. Wivel (Eds.), Denmark and the European Union (pp. 14-29). Oxon: Routledge.
  • Killham, E.L. (1993). The Nordic Way: A Path to Baltic Equilibrium. Washington: Compass Press.
  • Korybko, A. (2015.11.14). “Współczensa geopolityka UE i wspierany przez USA rozwój Międzymorza (cz. I)”. Geopolityka.org. Retrived from http://www.geopolityka.org/analizy/andrew-korybko-wspolczesna-geopolityka-ue-i-wspierany-przez-usa-rozwoj-miedzymorza-cz-i
  • Kuźmiak, M. (2013). Rola unijnych państw neutralnych w kształtowaniu bezpieczeństwa w Europie. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek.
  • Laursen, J.N., & Olesen, T.B. (2000). “A Nordic Alternative to Europe? The Interdependence of Denmark’s Nordic and European Policies, 1945-1998”. Contemporary European History, 9, pp. 59-92.
  • Lawler, P. (1997). “Scandinavian Exceptionalism and European Union”. Journal of Common Market Studies, 35, pp. 565-594.
  • Lindgren, R.E. (1959). Norway-Sweden. Union, Disunion and Scandinavian Integration. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Lodgaard, S. (1992). “Redefining Norden”. In J. Oberg (Ed.), Nordic Security in the 1990s: Options in the Changing Europe (pp. 281-300). London: Pinter.
  • Lundberg-Lithman, E. (1987). Immigration and Immigrant Policy in Sweden. Stockholm: Swedish Institute.
  • “Nearly one-third of Swedes want to join NATO” (2015.05.20). The Local. Retrived from http://www.thelocal.se/20150520/nearly-one-third-of-swedes-want-to-join-nato
  • “Nordic Council. The History of the Nordic Council” (no date). Nordic Cooperation. Retrived from http://www.norden.org/en/nordic-council/bag-om-nordisk-raad/the-nordic-council/the-history-of-the-nordic-council/before-1952
  • Nordic Economic Cooperation Committee, (1958). Cooperation Report by the Nordic Economic Cooperation Committee. Copenhagen: Nordic Economic Cooperation Committee
  • Phinnemore, D. (1996). “The Nordic Countries, the European Community (EC) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), 1958-84”. In L. Miles (Ed.), The European Union and the Nordic Countries (pp. 32-47). London: Routledge.
  • Piotrowski, B. (2006). Tradycje jedności Skandynawii: Od mitu wikińskiego do idei nordyckiej. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
  • “Proposals presented to the extraordinary meeting of Nordic foreign ministers in Oslo on 9 February 2009” (no date). Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iceland). Retrived from https://www.mfa.is/media/Frettatilkynning/Nordic_report.pdf
  • Säkerhetspolisens arsbok (2014). Stockholm: Saakerhetspolisen.
  • Scott, F.D. (1950). Scandinavia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Scott, F.D. (1977). Sweden the Nation History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Statistics Norway (2014). “Value of external trade”. Statistisk sentralbyra. Retrived from http://www.ssb.no/233762/value-of-external-trade.selected-countries-among-norways-most-important-trade-partners-and-figures-for-norway.usd-million-sy-317
  • Stoltenberg, T. (2009). “Nordic Cooperation on Foreign and Security Policy. Proposals presented to the extraordinary meeting of Nordic foreign ministers in Oslo on 9 February 2009”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iceland). Retrived from https://www.mfa.is/media/Frettatilkynning/Nordic_report.pdf
  • “Sweden and Finland in joint military war plan” (2015.02.19). The Local. Retrived from http://www.thelocal.se/20150219/sweden-and-finland-in-joint-military-plan
  • “Sweden's military to get six billion kronor boost” (2015.03.12). The Local. Retrived from http://www.thelocal.se/20150312/military-upgrade-follows-sweden-submarine-hunt
  • Szordykowska, B. (2011). Historia Finlandii. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo TRIO.
  • The Helsinki Treaty. Treaty of Cooperation between Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (1993). Nordic Cooperation. Retrived from http://www.norden.org/en/om-samarbejdet-1/nordic-agreements/treaties-and-agreements/basic-agreement/the-helsinki-treaty
  • Tiilikainene, T. (2001). “Finland in the EU”. In B. Huldt, T. Tiilikainen & T. Vaahtoranta (Eds.), Finnish and Swedish Security: Comparing National Policies (pp. 60-70) Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College.
  • Whittaker, D.J. & Thorsteinsson, G. (2015). The Iceland Watch. Cirencester: Mereo.

 

 

Message to:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart

Korzystając z naszej strony, wyrażasz zgodę na wykorzystywanie przez nas plików cookies . Zaktualizowaliśmy naszą politykę przetwarzania danych osobowych (RODO). Więcej o samym RODO dowiesz się tutaj.