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Author: Katarzyna Krzywicka
Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 248-271
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012011
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012011.pdf

Abstract:

The National Armed Forces were created in Venezuela at the beginning of the 20th century. Gradually they became the main instrument in the political game and were used in forming a centralized national state. Along with subsequent transformations of the political system the position of the Armed Forces was getting stronger and they started to expand their role. The present article offers an analysis of the position and role of the Armed Forces in the process of transformation of the state in Venezuela. I will focus my attention on the changes that took place in the period of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. I will also analyze some earlier crucial phases in the 20th century history of the formation of the Venezuelan state.

Tags: process of formation politics Venezuela armed forces

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Author: Eugeniusz Jendraszczak
Institution: Independent Researcher (Poland)
Author: Marceli Burdelski
Institution: Independent Researcher (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 272-286
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012012
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012012.pdf

Abstract:

The Korean Peninsula has a strategic place in East Asia. According to Korean historic sources the early beginnings of Korean statehood can be traced back many centuries before Christ. Korean history, when considering some events, has some similarities to the history of Poland. Very often Koreans, during the official meetings compare their historic struggles with ours, for example times of partitions and fi ghting against numerous occupying powers. In the past due to its geographic location, Korea had to continuously withstand the expansion of its neighbours, especially China and Japan. Particularly painful was the period of fighting against the Japanese invader at the beginning of 20th century, when after the annexation of Korea, the Japanese were imposing the policy of assimilation and were trying to completely colonize this country. It has unleashed very strong nationalist sentiments within the Korean nation.

Tags: Korean armistice East Asia politics korean war region of East Asia

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Author: Katarzyna Wardin
Institution: Naval University in Gdynia (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 287-306
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012013
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012013.pdf

Abstract:

A very rapid technological development at the turn of the 20th and 21th century, and the transition from an industrial society to an IT society marked even more the division of the “rich North” and “poor South”. Drastic differences in the distribution of world income have caused intensifi cation of old problems such as illegal immigration in many parts of the world, smuggling weapons, drugs, organised crime and terrorism as well as the emergence of new challenges related to the rapid development of so called “falling or failed states” especially in some parts of the world. Among the categories of countries in international political relations, increasingly often it can be found the category of “falling or failed state”, which is not in a position to operate internally as well as on the international scene. Problems that are related to the status of the bankruptcy of a state unfortunately are not problems of such a state only, but this is a challenge for the entire international community and international organizations. For this reason the European Union, as a signifi cant participant in world policies, cannot remain passive against these challenges and threats so it should and shall take actions to help in the stabilization of the situation in such countries. The primary question to be asked is whether this aid and other activities are effective with respect to the future of those countries or whether it is only the ad hoc attempt trying to control the situation.

Tags: modern piracy failed states operation Atlanta

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Author: Józef M. Fiszer
Institution: Lazarski University in Warszawa, ISP PAN (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 307-322
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012014
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012014.pdf

Abstract:

Modernisation of the European Union or just another modifi cation? Such a dilemma appears regularly during all inter-governmental conferences, specially before and after approving another revision treaty for the European Union. To answer such a question, fi rst the essence and meaning of these terms has to be explained, and to do so, the best option is to refer to their etymology. And so, according to the PWN “Dictionary of Foreign Words”, ‘modification’ »latin modification = measuring« is a change, transformation, remake; a modifi ed object, while ‘modernisation’ »fr. moderne = modern« is making something modern or making something contemporary’. Therefore, modernisation shall mean a broader and deeper process, these are actions leading to radical transformations and changes as compared to modifi cation, which usually precedes modernisation. It may then be said that as far as the European Union is concerned, commencing from its origination by the Maastricht treaty of 7th February 1992 till the latest revision treaty, i.e. the Lisbon treaty which became eff ective on 1st December 2009, we only witnessed its successive (permanent) modifi cation, that is slow transformations which were generally named extension and enhancement processes. Today, after nearly twenty years of remakes and use, the European Union needs not only a radical overhaul but rather modernisation, meaning its update and adapting to contemporary times. Today, the European Union requires adaptation to challenges and requirements of the 21st century determined by acceleration and globalisation progressing within all spheres of life.

Tags: modernisation of policy the European Union

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Author: Marek Rewizorski
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology, Pomerian University in Słupsk (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 323-340
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012015
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012015.pdf

Abstract:

Many commentators suggest that the Middle East political turbulence was foreseeable and it cannot be said it had been unexpected. However, the diplomatic and intelligence establishments in the United States and the European Union, which have the most crucial stakes in this region, seemed to have been so preoccupied with focusing on Al Qaeda, Hezbol-lah, Hammas, and the Taliban that in a narrow picture they seem to have lost sight of the revolutionary wave, which has altered the governments in Tunis and Cairo and shaved off some of the most hated and oppressive regimes with the sheer example of Hosni Mubarak and Muammar Qaddafi . The spectacular fall of such dictators as Mubarak, has led to the question, whether the “Arab Awakening” was a  transformation or a revolution. There are also questions concerning the idea of democratisation of the third world and corruption, which change the Arab governments into “bad apples”. According to the western view, democracy is a Janus-faced ideological god, pulling the strings of both politics and economics. One cannot exist without the other, therefore, when we reconsider the political aspect of the Arab uprising, we should not forget about the economy.

Tags: economic reform political economy Middle East

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Author: Teresa Sasińska–Klas
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 341-353
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012016
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012016.pdf

Abstract:

Media and communication are subjects which are closely related. For quite some time in each public debate references are made to an increasing dependence between media and communication processes. Explicit attention is paid to a changing context of the communication process, and especially the process of political communication. The role of media in the process of public communication is, on the one hand, quite traditional; that is to inform the public, popularize information and mobilize citizens to action, all in the name of the public good. On the other hand, it is also noticeable that modern media play new roles such as providers of entertainment, scandals, sensation, enjoyment. All this brings a question: which of these functions tell us about the future of the media, and – consequently – how do they change the process of political communication in the public sphere? And is this what we want?

Tags: new media social media political communication

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Author: Marek Szulakiewicz
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 354-366
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012017
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012017.pdf

Abstract:

Political wisdom, judgement or genius do not stem from the spirit of science and is not the upshot of theoretical generalizations or learning. There is of course “political science” and “political philosophy” but politicians can properly act without them because it is neither the discovery of laws or generalizations in the field of politics nor “knowledge about political things” but “political sense” that is crucial for his actions. As Isaiah Berlin put it years ago: “What makes statesmen, like drivers of cars, successful is that they do not think in general terms – that is, they do not primarily ask themselves in what respect a given situation is like or unlike other situations in the long course of human history (which is what historical sociologists, or theologians in historical clothing, such as Vico or Toynbee, are fond of doing). Their merit is that they grasp the unique combination of characteristics that constitute this particular situation – this and no other. What they are said to be able to do is to understand the character of particular movement, of a particular individual, of a unique state of affairs, of unique atmosphere, of some particular combination of economic, political, personal factors; and we do not readily suppose that this capacity can literally be taught”. Therefore politics is not a quest for “general terms” or general features of political phenomena but a direct and individual insight into concrete reality. Being a politician takes not learning but talent, not expertise but intuition, not knowledge but sense; it takes looking not at general but the particular dimension of human actions. Politicians can be taunted for their posture as Napoleon, they can be uneducated as farmer George Washington or act against morality as Cardinal Richelieu but frankly speaking all these vices are unimportant in the political realm.

Tags: philosophy contemporary politics political philosophy

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Author: Marta Dorenda–Zaborowicz
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 367-382
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012018
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012018.pdf

Abstract:

Human rights are “basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled”. Proponents of the concept usually assert that all humans are endowed with certain entitlements merely by reason of being human. Human rights are thus conceived in a universalist and egalitarian fashion. Such entitlements can exist as shared norms of actual human moralities, as justifi ed moral norms or natural rights supported by strong reasons, or as legal rights either at a national level or within international law. However, there is no consensus as to the precise nature of what in particular should or should not be regarded as a human right in any of the preceding senses, and the abstract concept of human rights has been a subject of intense philosophical debate and criticism. As the new millennium emerges, trends in global human rights are changing. Human rights issues are crossing sovereign boundaries and are no longer just issues of the state. As more and more non-governmental organizations are growing, and the Internet expands and facilitates a quicker spread of information, there are more and more people raising concerns about human rights related issues. Some of these come from the increasingly larger and infl uential commercial sector including large, multinational companies, while the others are raised by ordinary people, being parts of diff erent networks. The aim of this article is to examine the way social networks influence and change the methods of raising the awareness concerning human rights on one hand, but, on the other hand, to analyse how new media contribute to deepening global inequalities.

Tags: digital divide social network new media civil society

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Author: Jean–Michel De Waele
Institution: Free University of Brussels (Belgium)
Author: Michał Jacuński
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Author: Anna Pacześniak
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 383-407
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012019
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012019.pdf

Abstract:

Ideologies are fundamental in categorising, defi ning and evaluating political reality. They also condition the aims inspiring actors on the political stage, constituting, as it were, a bond providing parties, social groups and societies with sets of values and convictions that unite them. We are now witnessing an evolution of traditional political ideologies, triggered off by new challenges, the changing world order, processes of globalisation and Europeanisation, while political parties in Europe seem to resign from clear–cut ideological identifi cations, opting for the pragmatic, thus maximising their voting scores and, subsequently, efficient management of the public sphere. Politics is ever more frequently perceived as a mere struggle for power, political ideas are seen as slogans serving the purpose of winning votes or popular support, while ideologies have become “goods on display”, hiding deeper meanings of political life. Yet, at the same time ideologies still retain their purpose, infl uencing the functioning of political parties or political communities.

Tags: politics in Poland political ideologies political theory

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Author: Wojciech Peszyński
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 408-427
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012020
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012020.pdf

Abstract:

The Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship constitutes one of the smallest of the Polish voivodeships. It is composed of nineteen land districts and four city counties, including Bydgoszcz, Torun, Wloclawek and Grudziadz. According to the data provided by the Public Electoral Commission (PKW), in 2009 the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship was inhabited by more than 2 million people, 1.65 million of whom had the right to vote. Despite the relatively small number of inhabitants, due to provisions of the act regulating the process of voting for the Members of the European Parliament, the voivodeship in question became a separate electoral district with the electoral commission located in Bydgoszcz. This decision was infl uenced mostly by members of the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) representing this region in the Polish Parliament. This lobbing activity seemed benefi cial from the party’s perspective, since SLD has been gaining extraordinary support in the region. But for this lobbing, the voivodeship under consideration would have been included in one district together with the Pomeranian Voivodeship, where the majority of voters are prone to give their support to the right-wing and centre-wing parties.

Tags: Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship European Parliament

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