• Fundamentalism in the Light of Selected Psychological Concepts

    The aim of the article is to present the psychological roots of fundamentalism, which can be found in each type of the phenomenon, and also an attempt to show fundamentalism, as the configuration of certain personality traits. As the basis for such an interpretation of fundamentalism, serve the psychological approach, which relate to the personality, cognitive style, refer to the prejudices, as well as to the concept of authoritarian personality and its constitutive characteristics. Article raised the question of so–called “fundamentalist personality” on the basis of diversity of manifestations of this phenomenon and its correlation with the concepts of authoritarianism and dogmatism. Author also addresses psychological category of attitude, which is the starting point in the discussion of the phenomena, such as fundamentalism or nationalism. In the background of considerations is an attempt to organize knowledge on fundamentalism, taking into account the historical roots of the phenomenon, and also, as a complementary reflection, a legitimacy of identifying fundamentalism with terrorism. 

  • The post–Yalta Poland between totalitarianism and authoritarianism

  • Rytuały periodyczne jako narzędzie integracji systemu „pomajowego”

    After the May Coup Piłsudzki began the transformation of the political system in the direction of authoritarian solutions. Due to the lack of ideology, and also the need of public participation in political life, it was necessary to create mechanisms for the integration of the political system. The best tools for this purpose were periodic rituals – skillfully made by the ruling camp. They con­nect citizens between themselves and with government representatives . Analyzing the problems discussed in the pages of newspapers connected with sanacia, we can see the life cycles defining events in the Second Republic. These included name day of Jozef Pilsudski (19 March), Independence Day (November 11) and parliamentary elections. At that moments compeers of Piłsudski mobilized the whole society to work together, celebrate together, and seemingly involve in the public life of the country. Outside of these moments the system was free from political mobilization. The journalists analyzed the situation of Polish, mentioned merit and urged to be active.

    Although the headlines showed very solemn, glamour celebration of name day of Pilsudski and Independence Day, they were a unique event. Besides poems, memories, articles glorify Marshall and distinguished soldiers in the fight for independence, there was no opportunity for the active participation of citizens in the celebrations. Except these individuals who laid flowers and take part in the official ceremony in Warsaw, the people accompanied apathy and lack of commitment. The most exciting period of political life however were elections. In this period appeared many articles analyzing and criticizing politics and party’s activity in Poland. Otherwise the elections time political life was relatively calm, sometimes disturbed by occasional ventures.

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