de-democratization

  • Beyond Vote Rigging: Common Patterns in Electoral Malpractices in De-Democratizing Regimes

    For the past decade in many countries in Europe and its close neighborhood we have observed different types of processes which can be named as “de-democratization”. The aim of the article is to analyze the state of elections as the crucial democratic institution which fairness and competitiveness have a substantial impact on the political regime. While Turkey as a “role model” for our analysis remains a main focus of the article, three European countries were selected for a comparison based on their relative similarity to Turkey – Hungary, Macedonia (FYROM) and Serbia. The following questions are posed: Are elections in these countries free, fair and competitive? Can some types of electoral malpractice and irregularities be identified? How does the state of elections in terms of their fairness and competitiveness influence the political regime? The main hypothesis is that in the analyzed countries elections competitiveness limited by incumbents can become a factor deciding about the change within the political regime in the long run (loss of democratic quality) and also change the regime (to a less democratic one).

  • The Role of Economic Factors in the Processes of Democratic Consolidation – the Case of Post-Revolutionary Tunisia

    In the last fi ve years Tunisia has been presented mostly as a success story of political transition. It managed to adopt a new constitution and to conduct the parliamentary and presidential elections in 2014. Finally, civil society groups, which helped to end the political crisis in 2013, won the Nobel peace prize. If we look from the institutional perspective and the ability of political groups to compromise, indeed we can say that Tunisia is a success story. Th e picture is more bleak, however, if we try to assess the infl uence of economic factors on the development of Tunisian democracy, especially in light of recent terrorist attacks and social protests. Th e aim of the article is to answer the questions, to what extent economic crisis can inhibit democratic consolidation in Tunisia and what Tunisia can learn from the Spanish experience of political transition.

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