energy policy

  • Russlands Energiepolitik als Teil der russischen Außenpolitik

    This publication is part of the doctoral thesis, written in German with the title: Die Energiepolitik der Russischen Föderation im Zeitraum 2000–2009 und derem Auswirkungen für die energetische Sicherheit der EU (The Russian energy Policy 2000–2009 and its impact on the European energy security). The article presents how the Russian Federation is using its energy resources to achieve their current and future foreign policy goals. The author makes an attempt to explain a numer of fundamental issues relating on the one hand to the main motives of the Russian Federation in this field and on the other to its methods. He also analyses the Russian energy strategy and its negative impact on the energy security of the European Union. As important elements of this strategy the ”Gas-OPEC” as well as the direct and indirect investments of Gazprom in EU are mentioned. It is claimed that the implementation of pipeline projects by the Russian Federation (Nord-Stream and South-Stream) isn’t carried out at the bilateral relations level randomly – Nord-Stream (Russia-Germany), South-Stream (Russia-Italy) – but rather is seen as an opportunity to strengthen Russia’s relations with selected countries. This can be seen as an attempt to make the European Union weaker as a multilateral organization.

  • Petrol and Natural Gas Market of the Visegrád Group Countries 1993–2016: Current State and Prospects

    The paper addresses problems related to energy policies pursued by Central European countries. It identifies the amounts of energy resources in individual countries in the Visegrád Group as well as the transmission infrastructures they use for natural gas and crude oil. The author discusses projects aimed at diversifying energy supplies which are of key importance to V4 countries. The article also presents relations between those countries in both within the group and bilaterally. When outlining prospects of a V4 energy strategy, the account is taken of such vital aspects as relations with the Russian Federation and the contribution made by Visegrád countries to EU actions designed to develop a single energy market.

  • Political Technologies of Russian Energy Diplomacy

    The article focuses on the concept of energy diplomacy. It was proved that the European vector of Russia’s current foreign policy is characterized by an ability to use the energy factor as a tool of power and impact to promote and consolidate the Kremlin’s geopolitical interests in Europe. This article reviewed the political technologies of Russian energy diplomacy in the European space such as uncompromising position during negotiations and predetermined before achieving the results, political exchange, technology of “surprise effect”, barbell strategy, pipeline diplomacy, suppression of competitor and others. The issue of EU–Russian energy conflict communication is in the centre of research. It was analyzed the algorithm of Russia’s actions positioning itself as an energy superpower in building up the socalled system of power relationship on the Eurasian continent. It was presented in the article possible options for European states’ effective countering energy expansionism of Russia.

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