identity

  • Dealing with a Trauma Burdened Past: between Remembering and Forgetting

    Recognition that societies will not be able to build a future as long as they do not face the ‘demons of the past’ has become a kind of universal truth over the last decades of the 20th Century (Gibney et al., 2008, p. 1). This view, though challenging and ambiguous, is reflected in the globally present attempts to improve or rebuild relations within and between different communities at the domestic and international level. The question concerning, on the one hand, the essence and most essential elements and, on the other hand, the instruments and the limitations of rebuilding relations, as well as the political implications of those processes have become the broad area of interest and the discourse leading to significantly different ideas and solutions. The article aims at presenting different approaches referring to dealing with the conflicted and traumatized past both at the domestic and international level. Some selected instruments and methods which enable movement from a divided past towards a common future are discussed namely the strategy of engagement with the past versus the strategy of avoidance of the past. The special attention is paid to the notion of reconciliation understood as a process of rebuilding of relations through the multi-dimensional transformation of former adversaries after the period of violence and repression.

  • The Role of Trauma in Romania’s Ontological Security

    This paper analyses Romania’s foreign policy during the first post-communist years, by employing a theoretical viewpoint based on ontological security and trauma. It uncovers the elite efforts to secure the post-totalitarian state’s identity and international course. Romania’s search for ontological security featured the articulation of narratives of victimhood, which were linked with its proclaimed western European identity. The Romanian identity narrative has long struggled between “the West” and “the East”, trying to cope with traumatic historical events. These discursive themes and ontological insecurities were crystallized in the controversy surrounding the Romanian-Soviet “Friendship Treaty” (1991). Key Romanian officials displayed different typical responses to cultural trauma and debated the state’s path to ontological security, which was reflected in the foreign policy positions. 

     

  • Velikijj SHelkovyjj put i tengrianstvo v strategijakh kulturnojj politiki sovremennogo Kazakhstana

    In the paper, the chosen aspects of Kazakhstan’s contemporary cultural policy were examined, i.e., the new shape of the Silk Road, and the concept of Tengriism. Tengriism, being and open ideological and world-view shaping system, had an enormous influence on forming, developing and functioning of the unique and fundamental principles of peace and concord, which were recognized by the people of Kazakhstan as their political, economic, and cultural guidance. The nature of Tengriism, perceived in Central Asia, and in Kazakhstan in particular, not as a religion, but as an idiosyncratic worldview, was solidified due to tolerance principles, on which the Great Silk Road, among others factors, had a great influence throughout the years. Nowadays, the current contexts of Tengriism and the Silk Road have become essential components for the process of ethnic and cultural memory regeneration in modern Kazakhstan, thus fostering the national identity consolidation. The presented research focuses on three basic aspects: the specificity of cultural and historic landscape of the Great Steppe, conditioned by the historic presence and influence of the Silk Road; the various traces of Tengriism in modern Kazakhstan; and the potential of both Tengriism and the Silk Road evidenced in the present-day cultural policy of Kazakhstan.

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