• Dealing with a Trauma Burdened Past: between Remembering and Forgetting

    Recognition that societies will not be able to build a future as long as they do not face the ‘demons of the past’ has become a kind of universal truth over the last decades of the 20th Century (Gibney et al., 2008, p. 1). This view, though challenging and ambiguous, is reflected in the globally present attempts to improve or rebuild relations within and between different communities at the domestic and international level. The question concerning, on the one hand, the essence and most essential elements and, on the other hand, the instruments and the limitations of rebuilding relations, as well as the political implications of those processes have become the broad area of interest and the discourse leading to significantly different ideas and solutions. The article aims at presenting different approaches referring to dealing with the conflicted and traumatized past both at the domestic and international level. Some selected instruments and methods which enable movement from a divided past towards a common future are discussed namely the strategy of engagement with the past versus the strategy of avoidance of the past. The special attention is paid to the notion of reconciliation understood as a process of rebuilding of relations through the multi-dimensional transformation of former adversaries after the period of violence and repression.

  • The Role of Trauma in Romania’s Ontological Security

    This paper analyses Romania’s foreign policy during the first post-communist years, by employing a theoretical viewpoint based on ontological security and trauma. It uncovers the elite efforts to secure the post-totalitarian state’s identity and international course. Romania’s search for ontological security featured the articulation of narratives of victimhood, which were linked with its proclaimed western European identity. The Romanian identity narrative has long struggled between “the West” and “the East”, trying to cope with traumatic historical events. These discursive themes and ontological insecurities were crystallized in the controversy surrounding the Romanian-Soviet “Friendship Treaty” (1991). Key Romanian officials displayed different typical responses to cultural trauma and debated the state’s path to ontological security, which was reflected in the foreign policy positions. 


  • Velikijj Shelkovyjj put i tengrianstvo v strategijakh kulturnojj politiki sovremennogo Kazakhstana

    In the paper, the chosen aspects of Kazakhstan’s contemporary cultural policy were examined, i.e., the new shape of the Silk Road, and the concept of Tengriism. Tengriism, being and open ideological and world-view shaping system, had an enormous influence on forming, developing and functioning of the unique and fundamental principles of peace and concord, which were recognized by the people of Kazakhstan as their political, economic, and cultural guidance. The nature of Tengriism, perceived in Central Asia, and in Kazakhstan in particular, not as a religion, but as an idiosyncratic worldview, was solidified due to tolerance principles, on which the Great Silk Road, among others factors, had a great influence throughout the years. Nowadays, the current contexts of Tengriism and the Silk Road have become essential components for the process of ethnic and cultural memory regeneration in modern Kazakhstan, thus fostering the national identity consolidation. The presented research focuses on three basic aspects: the specificity of cultural and historic landscape of the Great Steppe, conditioned by the historic presence and influence of the Silk Road; the various traces of Tengriism in modern Kazakhstan; and the potential of both Tengriism and the Silk Road evidenced in the present-day cultural policy of Kazakhstan.

  • Tożsamość ukraińskiego Lwowa: jak rodził się matecznik kulturowego oporu

    The Identity of Ukrainian Lviv: how the stronghold of cultural resistance has been created. Th e aim of the essay is to present and explain the process of creation of the identity of contemporary Lviv. According to the author, in order to analyze this process, it is necessary to remember about cultural factors which can infl uence political aff airs. Th e essay includes an examination of the main cultural images composing the identity of the city, especially these believed to be attractive for the presented community, as well and these which are treated as the points of repulsion.

  • Wpływ rozwoju technologii internetowej na przestrzeń życia społecznego. Przestrzeń rzeczywista vs cyberprzestrzeń

    The impact of the development of Internet technology on the social life. Real space vs Cyberspace
    This article touches the subject of the Internet as a medium based on contrasts and reproducting oppositions. Dualisms are shown in terms of social space, communication, interpersonal relationships and identity. The two worlds are put in contrast: the real world and the virtual one, and the issues and the relations between them are pointed out. The article also describes the impact of Internet technology on communication. It types for the traditional communication and the Internet communication and points to the fundamental aspect of differentiating between them from the way the message is communicated. The paper also highlights the issue of interpersonal relations and the transformations they have undergone after the spread of the Internet. Relationships are classified as offline and online. Both types are described, and the way they are intertwined in social life. Both positive and negative characteristics of online relationships are indicated. The last issue addressed in the article is the identity gap. It is shown from the real and virtual world perspective.

  • Identity in Ecological Settings. The Theory of Multidimensional Identity

    The identity development takes place during the process of integrating the past to the presence with anticipated future. Additionally, it occurs in ecological context which concerns relations and interactions at the individual, group and institutional levels, as well as changes related to the revitalization of regional cultures, the integration of states into transnational structures or the progressive processes of globalization. In the paper, the Authors mostly pay attention to ecological determinants that influence the process of identity development, which takes place in multicultural environment. The purpose of the paper is to present a new theoretical approach – Theory of Multidimensional Identity (TMI) by Jerzy Nikitorowicz. It is based on the fact that a child is located in a diverse cultural environment under the influence of traditional multiculturalism, having existed for several generations, for example, on the borderland. During different stages of identity development (from the past to the future), three groups of dimensions have been distinguished: dimensions in the context of inherited (given, taken over) identity; dimensions in the context of individually shaped and realised identity and dimensions which are socially determined. This theoretical approach allows for the analysis of dependence and relations between the different stages and dimensions of identity development. It highlights with which stages those three dimensions form the identity system, how it changes, what are the reasons for those changes and modifications.

  • Integration and Identity – The Strategies of Young Europeans – Interpretative Tracks and Motifs

    In the article, the question is raised whether human knowledge, abilities, emotions and socialization are capable of shaping social structures according to the idea of multiculturalism (which faces a critical situation), introducing the humanistic quality to the principles of coherence and integration. With my own research results in the background (diagnostic polling and individual interviews), integration and identity are presented as strategies determined by aims, subjects (players) and profits (rewards). What has been indicated is the idea worth promoting in the field of pedagogy, in educational institutions and in whole societies, i.e., shaping the culture which re-builds the real power of group life. The postulate to shape such culture in multicultural communities is very hard to implement, but not impossible. The presented results of the studies conducted on a specific group of young Europeans – the participants of a short-term international voluntary workcamp – indicate and illustrate the development of cognitive functions, motivation and interactive activity of kindness- based character.
    The interpretative tracks and motifs for the obtained results are sought in K. Illeris’s holistic concept of learning and in other theories of various origin, not much known in the field of pedagogy: H. Simon’s concept of bounded rationality and R. Aumann’s theory of repeated games (otherwise called the theory of “conflict and cooperation” or “interactive decisions”). Applying two different approaches into the discussed issues – the theoretical and empirical, detailed and partially generalized approach – is cognitively interesting and useful in the practical dimension. This might help both to specify the stimuli which cause the evolution of human attitudes and strategies of acting and to design and organize education.

  • Creating a National Identity through Agricultural Education in Mandatory Palestine

    Formation of agricultural education in high schools was a milestone in the early 20th-century history of Zionist education, and in the Jewish society in Mandatory Palestine in general. Agricultural education was a means of changing the character of the Jewish people by imparting agricultural knowledge and training. Candidates came from agricultural settlements, but mainly – and this was its uniqueness – they also came from the towns. In addition, agricultural education provided a framework for absorbing immigrant youth. This educational framework was, among other things, ideological because those who joined it were usually motivated by a desire to change the character of the Jewish society, return to the land and work it. The cost of funding agricultural schools was high for the local Jewish community, and therefore these schools remained dependent on private initiative and philanthropy. In spite of the widespread ideological support, not many students actually took part in agricultural education due to the high cost of tuition on the one hand, and the need to help support their own families on the other. It can also be said that during this period, parents who had the means to provide their children with higher education, favoured the “Gymnasium” high school model, which could lead to them engaging in other professions.

  • Futerał, wehikuł, biokombinezon . Ciało jako (re)prezentacja tożsamości w narracjach uczestników wybranych grup religijnych

    The submitted paper focuses on the issue of corporeality, strictly spoken on the conjunction of an individual’s physical body with its bearer’s personal identity – examined within the context of the affiliation to religious groups. The attempt to find an answer to the basic issue of „Who am I” is not restricted to the nontangible realm of the human psyche, but is conditioned by the materiality of the human body as well and therewith extends into the world of physical appearances. Man’s material body is the place where the biological processes of life manifest themselves, with our sensory organs we experience the world’s physical reality. The possession of a physical body allows for religious activity. The human body turns into an object of special care and attention. Medical conditions in particular emphasize the human corporeality, especially when associated with pain experience. Similarly the consumption of psychotropic substances which provoke changes of consciousness, causes an enhanced bodyawareness. The strong correlation between personal identity and the body finds its expression in the parameter of a deeply experienced cohesive identity.

  • Wielość kultur w jednym człowieku – wartość (i) czy dylemat tożsamościowy?

    Autor traktuje kulturę jako czynnik różnicujący ludzi i grupy i w tym kontekście wskazuje na problemy tożsamościowe przyjmując, że nikt nie jest zakładnikiem odziedziczonej kultury. Na przykładzie Piotra Lachmana, poety i pisarza, przedstawia problem jednoczesnego bycia Polakiem i Niemcem, problem ustawicznego bycia na pograniczu kultur, prowadzenia wewnętrznego dialogu tożsamościowego. Odwołując się do filozofów dialogu i innych autorytetów ukazuje wartość relacji z Innym w procesie własnego rozwoju.
    Autor tekstu zwrócił uwagę na zakodowane w umysłach ludzkich dogmaty jako zagrożenie w rozwoju tożsamości oraz wskazał na zadania edukacji międzykulturowej w procesie kształtowania tożsamości ponadnarodowej, transkulturowej. Przedstawił, jak istotne obecnie, w kształtowaniu społeczeństw wielokulturowych, jest uznanie i rozumienie nowych, dynamicznych tożsamości hybrydowych.

  • Kulturowe wzbogacenie, zagubienie czy wykluczenie? Konsekwencje wychowania w żydowskiej rodzinie mieszanej w kontekście europejskich raportów

    Przedmiotem podjętych rozważań uczyniłam kwestię kształtowania tożsamości dzieci wychowanych w rodzinach mieszanych. W świetle trzech europejskich raportów chciałabym odpowiedzieć na pytanie, czy jest to kulturowe wzbogacenie, zagubienie czy może wykluczenie dla jednostki? Raporty niemiecki, holenderki i francuski ukazują konsekwencje dla dojrzewania w obliczu poważnych wyzwań identyfikacyjnych młodych osób pochodzenia żydowskiego. Staram się dokonać porównań rezultatów badawczych trzech zespołów, poszukując cech wspólnych dla tych krajów, a także starając się wskazać specyfikę badanych obszarów kulturowych.

  • Identity Issue in International Relations: Constructivist Approach

    Constructivist approach of analyzing international relations brought many new elements to the thought on the nature of international reality, which made it possible to explain it and understand it better. One of these elements in the process of analyzing this reality is the concept of identity of participants of international relations. Its analytical phenomenon consists of the fact that it allows us to undertake attempts to understand interests and character of norms and values of participants of international relations. The most important statement brought to scientific thought on international reality by Alexander Wendt’s notion of constructivism relates to the fact that states’ interests in international relations are not given a priori, but they are shaped during interactions with others. Not only is the role of inter-state actors who influence states’ interests in international relations underlined, but it also indicates the important role of other participants of international affairs in articulating national interests. From this perspective, the category of identity in international relations taken up by Constructivism takes account of the social, interactive nature of international reality making it possible to analyze its intangible part.

  • The Stratifying and Socializing Role of Popular Culture in Shaping the Identity of Young Generation

    Popular culture creates trends, shapes the world view, is a source of inspiration and identification of the young. The research results presented in this study show that youth in the final stage of adolescence judge the reality in a critical way. A significant number of the examined learners implement the model of identity shaped in the ‘down top’ direction. They reject media authorities and aim at creating their own concept of themselves. At the same time, a large percentage of the respondents respect media models associated with appearance and the consumerist lifestyle.

  • Edukacja międzykulturowa w procesie wspierania rozwoju tożsamości w warunkach wielokulturowości

    The author presents activities of intercultural education that support the development of the identity of a modern man functioning in the conditions of multiculturalism. He analyzes three areas of intercultural education. The first, associated with the acceptance and giving meaning to inherited culture. The second one, focused on the development of individual identity, shaping the sense of freedom and responsibility for self-development in the process of learning about one’s culture and other cultures. The third is about shaping attitudes towards representatives of other cultures, awareness of universal values and acquiring dialogic skills in the numerous offers of the global world.

  • Wielowymiarowe poczucie tożsamości społeczno-kulturowej. Idea i badanie. Perspektywa pedagogiczna

    The article concerns an important aspect of the sociocultural identity which is the self-identification of an individual as a member of the community. The author stress es the importance of the profile description of an individual’s sociocultural identity. He emphasizes the need of joint analysis of the four most important areas of macrocultural identification: euro_global, national, religious and regional. The text is concluded with a methodological proposal for the diagnosis of an individual’s sociocultural identification profile.

  • Edukacja wspierająca rozwój młodzieży i jej uwarunkowania – raport z badań na pograniczu południowym

    The undertaken study is aimed at presenting the knowledge and research experiences concerning developmental tasks and the borderland, as well as stimulating the discussion which might result in a more conscious approach and application of these categories in the context of pedagogy. The author presents a report from some studies conducted in the Southern borderland. The text becomes a part of the debate on the tasks of pedagogy – the education aimed at supporting the development of youth. The research into fulfilling developmental tasks, shaping youth’s identity and its many determinants constitute an important field of pedagogy. These studies enable the recognition of the real barriers for individual development in the social and cultural dimension, as well as the efficient or inefficient strategies of overcoming them.

  • Surogaty tożsamości wobec genealogii i rozwoju podmiotu. Pomiędzy mimetyczną funkcją anamorfozy a figurą Innego

    Tożsamość jest jedną z kluczowych kategorii, która z uwagi na zmiany kulturowe, światopoglądowe czy ideologiczne uzyskała swoiste reprezentacje interpretacyjne w dyskursach oraz przestrzeni społecznej. Zmiany te skłaniać powinny do refleksji nad dotychczasową percepcją, a także recepcją fundamentalnych kategorii pozwalających zrozumieć, czym współcześnie jest tożsamość i jakie jest jej osadzenie w źródłach podmiotowości rozumianej w perspektywie wykładni Heideggerowskiego bycia-w-świecie (Dasein) czy Lacanowskiego pragnienia oraz relacji do Innego. Egzemplifikacja tych ontologicznych i fenomenologicznych reprezentacji nie jest przypadkowa, nie jest też wyborem dyskursu nazywanego z nieukrywaną dziś dezaprobatą – postmodernistyczną manierą uznawaną w swej ignorancji za (post)prawdę. Wyłonienie przedstawianych w tekście fenomenów kulturowych jest celowym ukazaniem spektrum takiego rodzaju hermeneutyki, która pozwala na uwzględnienie współczesnego rozumienia człowieka jako bytu uwikłanego w postęp technologiczny, określanego przez interes poznawczy i jednocześnie poddanego konieczności emancypacyjnej jako niezbywalnego prawa jednostki wyznaczającego jej miejsce w świecie i dla świata. Z drugiej strony mamy do czynienia z podmiotem, który niezmiennie uwikłany jest we własną historię rodzinną, lęki egzystencjalne czy jednostkowe kompleksy wynikające z nieadekwatności wobec otaczającej rzeczywistości i niepewnych relacji z Innym.

  • Środowisko lokalne jako czynnik kształtowania (się) tożsamości osób w wieku późnej dorosłości na przykładzie Śląska Cieszyńskiego

    W opracowaniu tym wskazuję na związek między środowiskiem lokalnym a poczuciem tożsamości osób w wieku późnej dorosłości mieszkających w polskiej i czeskiej części Śląska Cieszyńskiego.
    Niniejsze opracowanie jest komunikatem z badań przeprowadzonych w Cieszynie oraz Czeskim Cieszynie w 2013 roku. Strategia ilościowa i jakościowa zastosowane zostały jako komplementarne względem siebie. Posłużono się ankietą, wywiadem oraz analizą danych jakościowych.
    Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań wskazują, że istnieje związek między środowiskiem lokalnym a poczuciem tożsamości osób w wieku późnej dorosłości. Człowiek buduje swoją tożsamość w relacji z drugim człowiekiem. Chęć wynikająca z wielostronnego poznawania siebie oraz innych skutkuje świadomością odrębności i niepowtarzalności, co decyduje o poczuciu tożsamości jednostki.

  • Poczucie tożsamości oraz funkcjonowanie w wymiarze społecznym studentów pochodzących z Białorusi, Ukrainy i Rosji studiujących na polskich uczelniach

    Coraz więcej studentów z Europy Wschodniej studiuje w polskich uczelniach. Polska jest dla nich krajem bliskim kulturowo, w którym mogą zdobyć dyplomy uznawane w Europie przy niskich kosztach utrzymania. Wymiar tożsamościowy jest niezwykle ważny, wręcz kluczowy, warunkuje bowiem pojawienie się postaw otwartości lub zamknięcia się na kulturę przyjmującą i replikację tejże postawy wobec języka kraju gospodarza, aktywności na rynku pracy i gotowości wchodzenia w grupy wtórne w społeczeństwie przyjmującym. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, ze studenci z Białorusi, Ukrainy i Rosji chcą integrować się z polskim społeczeństwem, pozostają jednak bierni i rzadko włączają się życie społeczne uczelni i środowiska lokalnego, nie promują też swojej kultury ojczystej. Społeczeństwo polskie nie jest bowiem otwarte na Innego. W grupie badanej zaobserwowano częste wskazania na uczucie przygnębienia, jakie towarzyszy studentom podczas pobytu w Polsce – jest to spowodowane niewydolnością systemu administracji państwowej, która odpowiada za legalizację pobytu cudzoziemców w Polsce. Postuluje się potrzebę stworzenia stanowisk uczelnianych i wydziałowych koordynatorów do spraw studentów cudzoziemskich, którzy pomagaliby w adaptacji i funkcjonowaniu tych studentów w uczelni i środowisku lokalnym. Za zasadne uznaje się wprowadzenie wolontariackiej instytucji studenta opiekuna, który pomagałby nowo przyjętym studentom w pierwszych miesiącach studiów (kulturowo, językowo i społecznie).

  • Identity Behaviours of Australian and European Communities of Schools with Polish as the Teaching Language – a Comparative Study

    The study comprises the presentation of an authorial approach to cultural identity, viewed from the perspective of the communities (consisting of children, parents and teachers) of schools with Polish as the teaching language in Australia and some selected European countries (Austria, France, the Czech Republic). In reference to the culturalistic model of identity, the characteristics of the most frequent identity behaviours of these communities were provided in the ethnic, national, integrative and mixed dimension. The author also indicates the contemporary contexts of identity shaping, which are determined by migration processes and multiculturalism. By formulating the most important conclusions resulting from the research, the need is indicated for implementing intercultural education in schools with Polish as the teaching language. Among other things, this will enhance the shaping of a multidimensional feeling of identity.

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