international relations

  • Ogniwa rozwoju kontaktów polsko-mongolskich

    The article points out that:

    1) The Polish-Mongolian and Mongolian-Polish contacts devloped rapidly after the World War II as a consequence of the international cooperation of the socialist states.

    2) Science and education were particularly important factors.

    3) Poles significantly contributed to the cultural and civilization transformation of Mongolia, including the spheres of construction, industry, and agriculture.

    4) Memories of the Polish-Tatar contacts still remain in the collective consciousness of Poles; the negative image of a community which destroys the cultural achievements of conquered peoples has formed.

    5) The contemporary knowledge about Mongolia and Polish-Mongolian relations is largely shrouded with a mist of myths and stereotypes.

  • Discussing Changes in Contemporary International Relations

    The paper reports the 9th Polish Conference on International Relations: 2017 – a Year of a Change organized by the Faculty of Political Science and International Studies at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń on June 2, 2017. It presents not only the scope and process of this years’ conference but also briefly describes the idea of annual meetings of young Polish scholars interested in widely understood international relations. The conference report presents accompanying events of the conference, which gave its ninth edition unique atmosphere. It also points out the way this years’ conference contributed to the unification of the community of students and PhD students in Poland who are researching a variety of subjects related to international relations.

  • MILITARY FORCE IN CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL REALITY

    For the purposes of this article it has been assumed that the army should not become an autonomous constituent of the state’s structure, since this would pose a threat of taking over a dominant position by this specific formation. The aim of the article is to analyze the modification of the reasons for the outbreak of war, and the means of conducting it. The ongoing changes in the security environment, both in national and worldwide scale, as well as the proceeding national interests of our country imply increasingly advanced tasks for the army and considerably extend their range. The process of transformation in the Polish army is being continued. Further changes are targeted at increasing operational capability in order to enable efficient accomplishment of domestic tasks and performing missions outside its borders. In the contemporary international reality there is a prevailing conviction, that the threat of the outbreak of a global-scale war is rather unlikely. However, other jeopardies and risks have recently come to the fore.

  • PUBLIC OPINION AND FOREIGN POLICY OF THE STATE . ANALYSIS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF POLISH FOREIGN POLICY

    For the purposes of this article it has been assumed that public opinion is a rapidly changing state of consciousness of large social groups, made up of more or less stable ideas and beliefs, relating to debatable issues, which has a direct or indirect impact on the current or future interests of society by its properties. This article aims to analyze the impact of public opinion on Polish foreign policy after 1989. The article assumes that: the public opinion has an impact on decisions affecting foreign policy, although the extent of this impact is very different and often is purely indirect; impact of public opinion in Poland on foreign policy increases, but still shall be defined only as incidental impact; public opinion in Poland does not determine foreign policy.

  • COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE COURSE AND NATURE OF THE CONFLICT IN UKRAINE

    The author shows the basic elements and tools for implementing security and defense policy of the European Union. She poses questions about the dependence of the Union’s policy and its impact on the conflict in Ukraine. The analysis of subsequent events enables to make conclusions and show irregularities. Two years after the bloody protests the analysis goes from hybrid war to creeping conflict.

  • POLISH AND GERMAN VISIONS ON THE FUTURE OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE

    The transformations of the North Atlantic Alliance in the wake of the 9/11 attacks and its mission in Afghanistan have proceeded hand in hand with the redefining of security interests in individual member states. Poland and Germany have also been affected by a polarization of views, particularly on the nature, place and role of NATO in today’s world. The countries’ geopolitics and their varying visions of European security have significantly affected their positions.

  • TURKISH-UZBEKISTANI RELATIONS: How Do Islam Karimov’s Regime and His Opponents Affect the Bilateral Ties Between Ankara and Tashkent?

    This article examines the role of Karimov regime and his opponents in influencing Turkish-Uzbekistani relations in the 1990s and its consequences for later developments. Following the description of the characteristics of Turkish-Uzbekistani relations, it will be discussed how far had the opposition leaders such as Abdürrahim Polat and Muhammad Salih an impact on the worsening of the bilateral ties between Turkey and Uzbekistan. This article then stresses Turkey’s attitude towards Uzbek opposition leaders which finally addresses the reasons for worsening of Turkish-Uzbekistani relations such as the bombings of Tashkent, Uzbek students in Turkey, Gülen Movement as well as the ideology of Pan-Turkism.

  • A HISTORIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF STUDIES ON SINO-INDONESIAN RELATIONS DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF THE COLD WAR, 1949-1967

    The Sino-Indonesian relationship is an important research topic in Cold War studies. Since the 1960s, a number of scholarly works have been published on the subject. The declassification of diplomatic documents in various countries, and particularly the opening of the Chinese Foreign Ministry Archives following the end of the Cold War, has led to new developments in the studies on Sino-Indonesian relations. Much of this research, however, has been focused on the period from 1949 to 1965, because soon after the Indonesian military coup of September 1965, Sino-Indonesian diplomatic relations was suspended and was not restored until 1990. This article is a historiographical overview of the more controversial topics in Sino-Indonesian relations between 1949 through 1965 in scholarly publications that have came out over the past half decade. These topics include, among others, the establishment and evolution of Sino-Indonesian diplomatic relations; the standpoint of the Indonesian Communist Party (Partai Komunis Indonesia –PKI) toward the Sino-Soviet split; China’s reactions to the anti-Chinese movements that occurred in Indonesia between 1959 through 1961; and the cultural relations between Indonesia and China. The discussion here is limited to publications in the English and Chinese languages; this paper does not make any attempt to include relevant scholarly works that may have been published in Bahasa Indonesia or other languages.

  • RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE UNITED NATIONS - CONSIDERATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AGAINST THE CASE OF AHMED ALI YUSUF AND AL BARAKAAT INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION

    The actions indicated above and taken by the United Nations and the European Union (in spite of their different international law status) argue that objectives attributed to international organisations are not only postulates, but a basis for actions taken specifically, both in the legal and actual dimension. Therefore, the main research objective adopted for this study was to bring them closer, with particular emphasis on the UN and the EU joint actions for international security. Due to the complexity and multifaceted nature of the discussed subject matter of these considerations, they will be confined to the T-306/01 Ahmed Ali Yusuf and Al Barakaat International Foundation case recognized by the EU Court of First Instance. In there, as in a lens, interrelationships between the international organisations in questions are concentrated; and not only in terms of international cooperation, but, more importantly, in terms of the principle of the primacy of the United Nations law over other legal regimes.

  • THE CHANGING EUROPEAN GAS MARKET AND THE EXPORT STRATEGY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Russian authorities have for years been proclaiming that in order to ensure energy security and to increase their economic presence in North-East Asia their priority is to diversify gas export and to increase cooperation with the Asia-Pacific region. Despite frequent meetings at interstate and business levels, and numerous formal – but no binding – agreements, no tangible progress in this regard has yet been made. This paper argues, from a game-theoretic perspective, that peril for Russian geopolitical and economic interests ensuing from both inception of EU energy policy and evolution of the European gas market has been one of the factors hindering Russian plans of eastbound gas export diversification.

  • THE THREAT OF MEGA-TERRORISM: AVAILABILITY, INHIBITORS AND MOTIVATION

    The prospect of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) terrorism poses a danger for contemporary societies. However, the incidents related to an application of weapons of mass destruction (that is, nuclear, chemical, biological and radiological weapons) by non-state actors are relatively rare. The aim of the paper is to present recent incidents and to estimate the threat from particular types of WMD. The author focuses both on the question of motivation to undertake these operations and on the problem of technological capabilities. To sum up, the risk of a massive WMD terrorist attack should be perceived as quite moderate due to the technological barrier, but selective attacks carry a greater potential risk because of their higher probability and significant psychological effect.

  • AMERICAN, CHINESE AND RUSSIAN VOICES ON THE CURRENT SITUATION AND THE FUTURE OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

    On 3rd-5th June, 2013 the 27th Asian-Pacifi c Roundtable was organized in Kuala Lumpur. Th e conference held traditionally in the Malaysian capital provided invited speakers with an occasion for presentations of their views on current problem countries situated in Asia and around the Pacifi c Ocean, as well as the future of relations between them.Th is time, the theme of the Asian-Pacifi c Roundtable was Strategising Change in Asia. USA Ambassador Hill said that reports about the decline of the West seemed to be premature. He proposed not to overestimate successes of Asian countries scored mainly in the fi eld of economy and reminded once again that Europe as well as North America possessed experience in overcoming problems of diff erent nature. Minister Morgulov from Russia tried to convince that Russian politicians are aware that their state possessed too little potential to compete successfully with the United States or China for the regional or global leadership. It seems that Russia has begun to implement some kind of containment strategy aimed at the containment of Russia’s diminishing signifi cance in the world.

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