Poland

  • Czynniki motywujące studentów do podjęcia studiów zagranicznych w ramach programu Erasmus+ oraz czynniki stanowiące dla nich bariery podczas pobytu za granicą na przykładzie studentów z Polski i Republiki Czeskiej

    W artykule podjęto rozważania dotyczące czynników, które motywują studentów przy podjęciu decyzji o wyjeździe zagranicznym w ramach programu wymiany Unii Europejskiej Erasmus+. Omówiono teoretycznie czynniki zarówno o podłożu poznawczym, takie jak: chęć poznawania kultury kraju przyjmującego, doskonalenie kompetencji językowych uczestników, możliwość podniesienia kompetencji zawodowych, czy też te o podłożu ekonomicznym, dotyczy to na przykład czynników związanych z kosztem utrzymania się w kraju wyjazdu. Grupę badaną stanowili polscy studenci wyjeżdżający w ramach programu Erasmus+ do czeskich uczelni oraz czescy studenci przyjeżdżający do uczelni znajdujących się w Polsce. Badaniami zostali objęci studenci kierunków pedagogicznych i filologicznych, studiujący w uczelniach czeskich oraz polskich. Przedmiotem przeprowadzonych badań były czynniki motywujące studentów do wyjazdu zagranicznego w ramach programu Erasmus+ oraz takie, które mogą stwarzać bariery i trudności podczas pobytu za granicą. Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań pozwalają zauważyć, że przy wyborze kraju goszczącego przez studentów największy udział mają nie czynniki motywacyjne o podłożu poznawczym, lecz czynniki ekonomiczne, takie jak, np. koszty utrzymania – ten aspekt wskazało najwięcej osób, jako najbardziej istotny przy wyborze miejsca wyjazdu. Można stwierdzić, że studenci wyjeżdżający na częściowe studia zagraniczne w ramach programu Erasmus+ kierują się najczęściej czynnikami o podłożu ekonomicznym, a więc sam wyjazd jest dla nich przede wszystkim czasem pewnej niezależności finansowej, a czynniki o podłożu poznawczym stanowią wartość dodaną mobilności. Optymizmem napawa fakt, że studenci w grupie badanej okazali się otwarci na poznawanie kultury kraju goszczącego.

  • Welfare State Support for Families: a Comparative Family Policies Analysis in Poland and Spain

    The paper focuses on the analysis of recent family policies on selected programs and actions in Poland and Spain. The analysis was made on the basis of a comparison of three spheres of supporting the families in both countries: financial support, institutional support and conditions of parental leaves. The main data sources came from the OECD and Ministries in Poland and Spain. Results show that there are differences between Poland and Spain in terms of funds assigned to the support of families and children, in terms of the length of maternity and paternity leaves, the level and types of fi nancial support, and also the types of institutional support.

  • Conspiracy Theories Are Not Only for Election Losers. Anti-system Parties and Conspiratorial Distrust in Poland

    Using data from a nationally representative survey in Poland, this study looks at the links between post-election attitudes, ideology and conspiratorial distrust toward public sphere. The reference point is an argument made by Joseph Uscinski and Joseph Parent. They provide evidence that conspiracy theories are more popular among election losers in the United States. Data presented in the article shows a limitation of the argument and the special role of anti-system party in the Polish parliamentary election of 2015. Therefore, the more comprehensive understanding of conspiracy theories within the field of political science is discussed.

  • The Formation of Local Self-government During the System Transformation Period in Poland and the Former GDR: A Comparative Study

    This paper presents changes that have occurred at the local level in Poland and new German federal states during the process of the post-communist system transformation. The stages of rebuilding the local self-government and its structures are analyzed. The experiences of Poland and Eastern Germany – two states where the system transformation took different courses – were compared. At the same time, both countries have different constitutional orders of the unitary state and federal state, and this context are interesting fields for a comparative analysis. This paper also confronts the two methods of institution building – the importing of well-established institutions and developing them in the evolutionary way, where in both cases path a dependency can be well observed. In Germany this is considered a special case (Sonderfall) of institutional transformation, in which the key role was played by the transference of institutions, personnel and financial means. This was also done much quicker and in a more structured and comprehensive way than in Poland. In the case of Poland, the creation of local self-government structures or shaping the political actors was a grassroots and evolutionary process. This article points out the most important factors that had a crucial significance in the course and results of the transformation and explains different ways of developing the system of democratic local self-government.

  • Reflections on the Proposal to Introduce a Term Limit for Elected Officials Effects and Implications

    The problem of the lack of “generational replacement” in Poland is particularly evident on the local self-government level. For years, there has been an ongoing public debate on the adoption of legal solutions introducing term-limits for the office of commune head, mayor and president of the city. Politicians of Law and Justice returned to their idea from 2005 and, shortly before the local elections of 2018, decided to prepare new regulations in this respect. They argued that the adopted solutions create real prospects for implementing projects by young politicians and activists. However, the issue was hotly debated and the initiators’ motives were put into question. There is no doubt that a two-term limit in local selfgovernment units has always stirred up emotions. A lot of self-government officials perceive it as a regulation which violates the provisions of the Constitution of the RP. The aim of this paper is to present the public debate on the adopted solutions and discuss their assumptions.

  • „Łza kapiąca na wąsy…” „Legenda Młodej Polski” Stanisława Brzozowskiego czyli my a Europa

    “A tear dripping on the moustache...” “The Legend of the Young Poland” by Stanisław Brzozowski that is we and Europe

    Since the beginning of the modern times, one of the main problems of the Polish culture has been the answer to the question concerning the relation: Poland and Europe, the West. A tremendous variety of literary works concerning this topic has been written. One of the outstanding and broadly discussed literary works is The Legend of the Young Poland by Stanisław Brzozowski which was written at the turn of the twentieth century. The main theory expressed by Brzozowski is: Poland has remained beyond Europe since the beginning of the modern times. Its culture has been shaped by the gentry. It is the culture assuming its superiority over Europe. All failures of Poland are treated here as the nonculpable facts and – in the face of all Polish ideals – unjust...And this is H. Sienkiewicz. Therefore Brzozowski suggests using these elements of the Polish culture archetype which – contrary to the tradition of the gentry – are the most valuable. This is the thought of A. Mickiewicz and Romanticism. At the same time, as it was indicated by Gombrowicz in his works, one should bear in mind the fact of the specific character of the Polish culture. The answer to the question about the relation Poland and Europe is – contrary to the radical standpoint of the Legend... – ambiguous.

  • Rationalist Theory of International Relations: The Case of Relations between North Korea and Poland after 1989

    This article focuses on relations between Poland and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea after 1989. Before 1989, bilateral relations between these countries were very close. As of now, the behavior of North Korea toward Poland is based on a rational behavior. The Polish foreign policy toward North Korea is within the EU framework, which supports an evolutionary change in character of the North Korean regime. Poland is involved in North Korea through different fields, especially such as the humanitarian one.

  • The President of the Republic of Poland in the Light of Constitutions Adopted in Poland Between 1918 and 2018 – Selected Issues

    The article concerns the constitutional position and political role of the President of the Republic of Poland. Though the Author concentrates on the current constitution of Poland, that entered info force in 1997, he also reviews all the constitutions (and important amendments to these constitutions) that were adopted over the last century, so after Poland had restored its sovereignty in 1918.
    The analysis is concentrated not only on the constitutional position and political role of the Polish president, but also on the way he was (and is) elected. The Author tries to prove a thesis that the actual political position of the head in the state in Poland depended and still depends not only on constitutional provisions, but also on specific political circumstances, and even the character and personality of the people holding this office.

  • Polsko-japońska współpraca polityczna oraz gospodarcza w latach 2003–2017

    The East Asian region has never been among the priority directions of Polish foreign policy – only a few percent of Polish diplomatic engagement was focused on the entire Asian continent. In turn, this small percentage of Polish commitment was divided among all countries in the region. Nonetheless, it is worth noting, that in the examined period (2003–2017), a several very important bilateral agreements were concluded – including agreements that Japan decided to make only with a narrow group of countries.
    In the following paper I decided to analyze the last 14 years of bilateral relations between Poland and Japan. The article uses both language sources (Polish and Japanese), as well as a statistical data.
    At the end of the paper will be shown, that even though relations are developing in the right direction, it should be considered whether the pace of their development will not prevent them from intensification.

  • Zarys relacji politycznych i gospodarczych między Polską i Wielką Brytanią w latach 1990–2018

    The article is focused on the political and economic relations between Poland and Great Britain in last three decades. In first part of the article it was introduced the evolution of the most important political events in bilateral relations and convergent and divergent matters relates to the business of both states before and after the obtainment by the Poland of the membership in NATO and the European Union. Asymmetry among both countries in the political and economic aspect was also underlined. In second part of the article, the attention was concentrated on the analysis of mutual economic relations, in this the growth of trade turnover, services and investments. Consequences for Poland connected with the exit of Great Britain from European Union become also approximate. Four principal conclusions were introduced in the end of the article.

  • Stosunki polsko-rumuńskie w latach 2009–2017. Wybrane problemy

    The article concerns selected problems in the bilateral cooperation between Poland and Romania in 2009–2017. The study attempts to identify the challenges these countries face and how they take action in this regard. The article presents the problem of political and economic cooperation between Poland and Romania in the examined period of time. Issues such as cooperation in the area of external security, energy security or cooperation within the framework of the Three Seas Initiative were discussed. It is important that the joint activities undertaken by Romania and Poland contribute to increasing the attractiveness of the region of Central and Eastern Europe.

  • Aparatura w ochronie roślin w polskim przemyśle tytoniowym w połowie XX wieku

    The article concerns issues relating to tobacco plant protection, which is an important element of the work of every tobacco grower and often decides on the amount and quality of the crops.
    In the middle of the 20th century The Tobacco Industry and the Tobacco Growers’ Association supplied plan protection equipment for tobacco growers. Different designs of spraying equipment have been developed for different types of applications and field and crop conditions. In the Polish tobacco industry one of the most popular was the high volume sprayer OP-20. In the first half of the 60s the percentage of sprayer OP-20 was a more than 50% of all sprayers. Gradually, in place of sprayer OP-20 were introduced sprayers type “Puzon” and “Działkowiec”. Very popular and effective were hand compression sprayers – “Sad” and “Rex”, which were placed in a wheelbarrow. In the middle of the 60s tractor mounted sprayer have been used, especially by plant protection stations.

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Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart

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