- Year of publication: 2018
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-8
- DOI Number: -
The article aims to present and critically analyze one of the currents of thought within the framework of deliberative democracy. The main dispute that we identify in the framework of this theory is the dispute between the impartialist and pluralistic approach. The role of reason towards the phenomenon of pluralism is the subject of these discussions. The impartialists base their arguments above all on the idea of public reason, while pluralists deny its value to other values. It can therefore be concluded that this dispute consists in opposing the rationality of pluralism to the pluralism of rationality. In addition to analyzing the arguments of the pluralist approach, we also focus on the criticism of the impartialism that these positions have put forward. The article distinguishes three possible forms of pluralism: rationality of pluralism, plurality of rationality prima facie and plurality of rationality sensu proprio. This allows us to show the relationship between impartialism (rationality of pluralism) and pluralism (plurality of rationalities prima facie) and the plurality of pluralism proposed by the critics of impartiality (plurality of rationalities prima facie) with a specific form of pluralism (plurality of rationality sensu proprio). In addition, in the article we identify the directives which pluralists propose to take place of public reason. The pluralistic approach which we analyze in the text is presented by such authors as: Iris Marion Young, Seyla Benhabib, Chantal Mouffe, Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson. The impartialist tradition should be associated with John Rawles and his interpreters and critics such as Joshua Cohen and Brian Barry.
The article refers to the class of situations in which abandoning the principle of legalism occurred in connection with the threat to the basic interests of a society and a state. The political history of the United States provides numerous examples of this kind of events. During international armed conflicts involving the US, civil wars or revolutions, the political leaders of this modern constitutional state have often decided to breach the law in order to overcome the danger threatening „the life of the nation”. One of the explanations for this state of affairs was the fact that the constitution of 1787, as distinguished from many other contemporary national constitutions, did not contain detailed solutions for the times of crisis. The activity of American presidents in the area of national security was grounded on expanding interpretations of their competences defined in the Basic Law. One of the theoretical grounds for president’s emergency power doctrine was the theory of prerogative elaborated by John Locke in the late 17th century. The article seeks to provide answer to the following paradox. Why did Locke, despite his involvement in developing the idea of the rule of law, also accept exercising extralegal prerogative powers in cases of emergency? The English philosopher defined the prerogative as „the power to act according to discretion, for the public good, without the prescription of the law, and sometimes even against it”. The idea of extralegal powers has become a recurring motif in the history of the United States’ liberal political culture. Proponents of this vision were convicted that uncertainty, contingency and an unforeseen cases are an inherent features of social and political life, which in many cases elude legal regulation. Recently, the renaissance of Locke’s theory of prerogative has taken place in connection with the war on terrorism, in form of an extralegal measures doctrine.
The article attempts to analyse the notions of school culture and school climate as well as their definitions, scopes and the applied research approaches. Although such activities have been undertaken and presented both in English and German literature, they have failed to constitute a separate field of analysis in Poland and as such, have been merely addressed on the margins of other problems. In this article, the author points out the positions of researchers who have identified the need to clarify the separate identity of the notions and for this purpose, to adopt appropriate research approaches, often leading, as the author attempts to illustrate, to diverse conclusions.
General legal position of an individual in terms of education is shaped by the norms of constitutional weight. Among them a special place is taken up by the principle of equal access to education, which is one of the guarantees of the right to education. In the author’s opinion, the above mentioned principle has a close relation to educational diagnostics, especially its normalized part, which is didactic measurement. Therefore, an extralegal element, which is the measurement (of its quality), has a significant influence on the legal position of an individual and determines the possibility to use one of the most fundamental rights. From the pedagogical perspective, the author proposes taking into account the legal environment in which educational diagnostics functions, and which – although roughly – he presents in the article, whereas from the legal perspective he points out to the necessity of taking into account the educational diagnostics’ conditioning in the evaluation process of implementing equal access to education.
In the common opinion, old age is still a taboo. Among the variety of the difficulties experienced by the elderly, there are also an increasingly occurring struggle with acclimating to the aging, and a sense of being a burden. The article focuses on the issue of loneliness, especially among elderly people. It is also an attempt to answer the questions of whether the old people experience loneliness, and what are the factors that affect this condition. In order to reply to these questions, the author attempted an analysis of the issues basing on literature, using theoretical analysis data and the earlier research.
The article presents research on possible interpretations of Core Curriculum provisions in the area of linguistic education for the 1st educational stage: grades 1 – 3, early school education. Core Curriculum is a starting point of planning and organisation of educational process, linguistic education included. While its interpretation is dependent on numerous factors, it was assumed that basic interpretation direction is dictated by the language of the Core Curriculum itself. The objective of the article was to reflect on meanings in Core Curriculum provisions, which become a vital influence on early school language learning. The regarded problem is thus: how does the language of Core Curriculum dictate possible methods of interpretation in educational strategies? Language acquirement theories overview was presented in relation to the school didactics appearing in various pedagogic paradigms. Then, Core Curriculum provisions were analysed and matched to specific didactic options, including their relations to language acquisition theories. In the analysis, category of „linguistic image of the world” was used, which allows to reveal point of view of document authors on theoretical and didactic bases of early school language learning. Core Curriculum provisions turn out to be equivocal or even contradictory in relation to the theoretical basis, which implicates chaos in the didactic interpretation.
The social functioning of people with dysfunctions is an essential part of any training programme for future special education teachers. Special Education Studies involve two large class modules dedicated, among other things, to the methodology of teaching and the social functioning of children, youth and adults with disabilities. With respect to deaf and hard of hearing persons (DHH), one can speak about focusing on rehabilitation and integration of DHH students into the whole of hearing society in the broad sense of the terms: this approach is specific to Polish surdopedagogy which is one of the fields of Special Education. Consequently, Polish surdopedagogy devotes relatively little attention to deaf people’s manual communication, in particular the Polish Sign Language (PJM) or to deafness from the cultural perspective. These two dominant features of Polish surdopedagogy, i.e., the affirmation of special therapy and the ignorance of the communication aspect, will be subject to an analysis that is necessary in view of the emancipation of Deaf Studies, or of an interdisciplinary approach to the problems of deafness from the DHH community’s perspective. Deaf Studies cover the same issues as surdopedagogy. However, while surdopedagogy is based on the medical definition of deafness (inability to hear) and its effect on the functioning of people with hearing loss, the foundation for Deaf Studies is the social functioning of DHH persons among d/Deaf people, which reflects the developmental dynamics of their cultural identity within the linguistic minority, with all the consequential implications.
The submitted paper focuses on the issue of corporeality, strictly spoken on the conjunction of an individual’s physical body with its bearer’s personal identity – examined within the context of the affiliation to religious groups. The attempt to find an answer to the basic issue of „Who am I” is not restricted to the nontangible realm of the human psyche, but is conditioned by the materiality of the human body as well and therewith extends into the world of physical appearances. Man’s material body is the place where the biological processes of life manifest themselves, with our sensory organs we experience the world’s physical reality. The possession of a physical body allows for religious activity. The human body turns into an object of special care and attention. Medical conditions in particular emphasize the human corporeality, especially when associated with pain experience. Similarly the consumption of psychotropic substances which provoke changes of consciousness, causes an enhanced bodyawareness. The strong correlation between personal identity and the body finds its expression in the parameter of a deeply experienced cohesive identity.
Is school culture able to reduce the negative influence of work stressors present in teacher’s work? The goal of the study presented in this paper was to test a hypothetical mechanism, according to which school’s culture moderates the links between stressors and teachers’ job engagement. Relying on job demandsresources theoretical model, in the investigation conducted on a large (N=449) sample of teachers we found that although indeed the exposition to stress in an everyday teachers’ work is negatively related to teachers’ engagement, school culture serves as a buffer that moderates the relationship between stress and engagement. Among the teachers who perceived their school culture as supportive, stress did not reduce their engagement, while this effect was find in less supportive schools.
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