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Author: Akmal Saidov
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 15-42
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014101
PDF: npw/06/npw2014101.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article is devoted to the historical evolution and modern development trends of the Constitution of Poland. It provides the general characteristics of formation and development of the Republic of Poland. It is emphasized that Poland is the earliest explorer of the European constitutionalism. Since 1791 in the constitutional history of Poland were approved the nine constitutional documents. In addition, consideration is given to such historical constitutions as the Constitution of May 3, 1791, the Grodno Constitution of November 23, 1793, the Lower Constitution of February 20, 1919, the March Constitution of 1921, the Constitution of 1935, the Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Poland of 1952, the Constitution of 1976, the present Constitution of 1997. The article reveals the main features of the present Constitution and characterizes contemporary constitutional system of Poland.

constitutional system of Poland peculiarities of the Polish Constitution the present Constitution of Poland of 1997 constitutional development and reform of Poland Constitution of Poland Rzeczpospolita Constitution

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Author: Khatira M. Ibragimova
Year of publication: 2014
Pages: 43-51
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014102
PDF: npw/06/npw2014102.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article is dedicated the role of the national leader of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev in the formation religious tolerance. The author considers the main principles of tolerance in the country, the role and relevance of religious values in a sovereign democratic country.

religious tolerance Heydar Aliyev Azerbaijan

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Author: Rafał Czachor
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 52-66
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014103
PDF: npw/06/npw2014103.pdf

Streszczenie:

The process of political disintegration of the Soviet Union has not ended with official dissolution of this state in the end of 1991. The best evidence of instability of the post-Soviet space are “frozen” ethno-political conflicts in Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The main goal of this article is to analyze the attitude of South Ossetian political elites to the idea of independence. The author presents the development of political life in South Ossetia since the declaration of its independence in 1990. He argues that despite of strong will to get sovereignty, South Ossetian politicians are considering the future of separatist quazi-state within Russian Federation. In fact both Ossetian elite and Russian authorities get advantages of current status quo.

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Author: Maciej Franz
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 67-80
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014104
PDF: npw/06/npw2014104.pdf

Streszczenie:

On February 3, 2014, the American task force, including the command ship USS „Mont Whitney” entered the Black Sea. The ship was a flagship during the last few military operations of the USA on the Mediterranean Sea for example against Libya or in the area of Syria. The American task force appeared on the Black Sea without giving the official reason. It is possible that it happened in frameworks of anti - terrorist operations by the way of the Olympic Games in Sochi but it is also possible that it was to support Georgia and to represent American political interests.

anti-terrorist operation USS „Mont Whitney” the Black Sea Georgia Russia

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Author: Michał Banaś
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 81-98
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014105
PDF: npw/06/npw2014105.pdf

Streszczenie:

Anticipated effect of democratization is not only the establishment of effective democratic institutions, but also to consolidate behavior patterns typical for this system. Unfortunately, this process does not always achieve the assumed effect. It is recognized that the democratic transformation can be completed in three ways: success, failure (back to authoritarian rule), or the establishment of hybrid regime, “hanged” between democracy and authoritarianism. An example of such a system is competitive authoritarianism, which model was firstly described by S. Levitsky and L. A. Way. In the article author intends to analyse the political situation in Ukraine during the presidency of Viktor Yanukovych in the years 2010–2013 using this model. Thanks to this an attempt to explain the systemic causes of the events taking place in this country at the turn of 2013 and 2014 will be also undertaken.

Viktor Yanukovych competitive authoritarianism presidency model Ukraine

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Author: Arkadiusz Czwołek
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 99-128
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014106
PDF: npw/06/npw2014106.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper attempts to estimate chances for modernisation of the Byelorussian Energy system in the years 2011–2016. In accordance with the government strategy, in 2015 Byelorussia is to become an energy independent country. The ambitious government plan provides for modernisation of several tens of power facilities. It also aims at reducing the dependence of the domestic energy sector on Russian energy sources. However, the modernisation plans of the energy system include a significant risk, as their financing largely depends on obtaining foreign loans. The current implementation rate of the government strategy indicates that chances for modernising the outdated Byelorussian energy system are small. Only commissioning of a nuclear power plant will end Byelorussian problems with electric power shortages.

the transmission infrastructure power system modernization power Belarus

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Author: Maciej Zblewski
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 129-164
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014107
PDF: npw/06/npw2014107.pdf

Streszczenie:

This publication is part of the doctoral thesis, written in German with the title: Die Energiepolitik der Russischen Föderation im Zeitraum 2000–2009 und derem Auswirkungen für die energetische Sicherheit der EU (The Russian energy Policy 2000–2009 and its impact on the European energy security). The article presents how the Russian Federation is using its energy resources to achieve their current and future foreign policy goals. The author makes an attempt to explain a numer of fundamental issues relating on the one hand to the main motives of the Russian Federation in this field and on the other to its methods. He also analyses the Russian energy strategy and its negative impact on the energy security of the European Union. As important elements of this strategy the ”Gas-OPEC” as well as the direct and indirect investments of Gazprom in EU are mentioned. It is claimed that the implementation of pipeline projects by the Russian Federation (Nord-Stream and South-Stream) isn’t carried out at the bilateral relations level randomly – Nord-Stream (Russia-Germany), South-Stream (Russia-Italy) – but rather is seen as an opportunity to strengthen Russia’s relations with selected countries. This can be seen as an attempt to make the European Union weaker as a multilateral organization.

Russian Federation natural gas energy policy the European Union

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Author: Natalija V. Slobodjan
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 165-178
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014108
PDF: npw/06/npw2014108.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article analyzes the importance of the energy factor in the system of relations between United States and Russia. It defines the role and place of the oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf, as well as Iraq and Iran in the energy policies of the United States of America and the Russian Federation. The paper discussed the conceptual content of the energy factor as a foreign policy tool, which can simultaneously act as an element of “hard” and “soft power”. The mechanism of the formation of the United States of a regional network on the system of so-called “energy outposts.” The author analyzed the basic mechanisms of the US-Russian energy dialogue in the Gulf region, as well as highlighted reasons for the rise of competitive confrontation between the superpowers in the energy sector of the region and presents main directions of Russian-American cooperation and competition in the energy sector of the Gulf States.

energocompetition energodialogue energy outpost stability in the oil logistics oil market Gulf States Russia’s energy policy energy security of the USA

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Author: Larisa Lykoshina
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 179-191
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014109
PDF: npw/06/npw2014109.pdf

Streszczenie:

Article is devoted to the analysis of relations between Russia and the Polish in the 90ies of the 20th century. The author comes to the conclusion that it was not an easy time for formation of the relations between the countries on the foundation of the principles of partnership and democratic. Considering different geostrategic interests of both countries and the heavy historical heritage it’s hard to talk about harmony.

geopolitical interests Poland’s eastern policy Russian-Polish relations Russia Poland

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Author: Akylbek L. Saliev
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 192-201
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014110
PDF: npw/06/npw2014110.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article considered written sources concerning the practice of imperial power, represented by administration of K.P. Kaufman, the first governor-general of Turkestan and national courts of Turkestan.

national courts local administration court state

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