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Author: Krystyna Gomółka
E-mail: Krystyna.Gomolka@zie.pg.edu.pl
Institution: Politechnika Gdańska, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 15-29
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017401
PDF: npw/15/npw2017401.pdf

Streszczenie:

The European Union supported Kazakhstan in carrying out political, economic and social reform twice. For the first time EU did so within the framework of the TACIS program in the years 1991–2006 when Kazakhstan has received $ 166 million mainly for the restructuring of state-owned enterprises, agriculture, infrastructure, energy, telecommunications, transport, environmental protection, administrative reform and health care and education. Again, the European Union has granted funds to Kazakhstan in the framework of the Strategy for Central Asia in 2007–2013. The main burden of support has been designed to prepare for institutional reforms for good governance and human rights protection. There were implemented 17 projects within four sectors: legal services and the judiciary; human rights, economic policy and development, strengthening civil society. In assessing the changes in some regions of the country reported good practices in the field of dialogue between local authorities and non-governmental organizations, increase the efficiency of public services and the transparency of budgetary expenditure. It was emphasized, however, that the authorities of Kazakhstan do not show understanding for the concept of good governance and democratization processes.

projects Kazakhstan democracy human rights the European Union governance

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Author: Michał Pietkiewicz
E-mail: michal.pietkiewicz@uwm.edu.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 30-42
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017402
PDF: npw/15/npw2017402.pdf

Streszczenie:

In the article the international legal status of the territory, and the territory of the state was ascertained, and the features of the legal status of a state border were identified. The main problem of the thesis is to show the causes of conflicts in determining the borders of the Central Asian states from the perspective of Russian scholars. The main issues of regulating international relations in the sphere of the delimitation of state borders under the international law in Central Asia are outlined.

state territory international legal status state border Central Asia delimitation demarcation

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Author: Agnieszka Miarka
E-mail: agnieszka.miarka@us.edu.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 43-60
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017403
PDF: npw/15/npw2017403.pdf

Streszczenie:

The purpose of this article is to characterize the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan (2005). The author presents the causes of the revolution, among other things: the importance of the tribal structure of Kyrgyzstan, nepotism and corruption during the presidency of Askar Akayev. The article presents the course of developments Tulip Revolution. Finally, the author focuses on the presentation of the most important implications of this revolution, such as the a revolution in 2010 and the resignation of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev.

Askar Akayev tribes Tulip Revolution Kyrgyzstan elections

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Author: Kazimierz Pierzchała
E-mail: k.pierzchala68@o2.pl
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości w Warszawie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 60-76
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017404
PDF: npw/15/npw2017404.pdf

Streszczenie:

The object of the article are aspects of penitentiary system of Russian Federation based on two pints of view: Polish and Russian. The aim is to highlight the essence, the content and range but also conditioning and tendencies for changes in the context of international ambitions and role of Russia but also widely knowing term like security of nation I case of penitentiary system of such country. Popularised and worked out in 2006 by European Prison Rules (Recommendations Rec (2006)2) the idea of normalisation, meaning minimalization some effects of imprisonment, will have a long way to find appropriate using in Russian penitentiary practice, which is directed mostly on giving a penalty for somebody. It is such seen both by the society and the government. The most accurate opinion is management policy of Federal Prison Service became as it were the model of country in which monopoly to rule belong to weight structures. In all, there is no humanisation of current justice, because the cult of prison is constantly observed and judicial reform transpired strongly illusory. The lack of control for penitentiary system by the social organisation is the effect of many omissions. In the source literature is appeared many opinions that in Russia the prison culture permeated to the every spheres of life.

Russia penitentiary system prisoners prisoner work camp camp

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Author: Robert Kłaczyński
E-mail: rklaczynski@gmail.com
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 77-95
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017405
PDF: npw/15/npw2017405.pdf

Streszczenie:

A paper entitled Energy resources of post-soviet Central Asia: reserves, production, energy policy covers topics that refer to production and transport of the petrol and natural gas through the so called “Asian five” states. Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are over-regional leaders in the production of petroleum and natural gas. New natural resources reserves has been also discovered in Tajikistan and Kirgizstan. The post-soviet states of Central Asia are making an effort to raise their shares in the global petrol market however their abilities are limited by the Russian Federation`s position in the global market, corruption and nepotism. Only the overcoming of this negative tendencies might lead to positive change of the perception, as the region countries will be perceived as a key players in the petroleum and natural gas export.

Gas petroleum transfer Central Asia energy policies the Russian Federation

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Author: Aktolkyn Kulsariyeva
E-mail: aktolkyn777@mail.ru
Institution: Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Republic of Kazakhstan
Author: Madina E. Sultanova
Institution: Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Republic of Kazakhstan
Author: Zhanerke N. Shaygozova
Institution: Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Republic of Kazakhstan
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 96-112
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017406
PDF: npw/15/npw2017406.pdf

Streszczenie:

In the paper, the chosen aspects of Kazakhstan’s contemporary cultural policy were examined, i.e., the new shape of the Silk Road, and the concept of Tengriism. Tengriism, being and open ideological and world-view shaping system, had an enormous influence on forming, developing and functioning of the unique and fundamental principles of peace and concord, which were recognized by the people of Kazakhstan as their political, economic, and cultural guidance. The nature of Tengriism, perceived in Central Asia, and in Kazakhstan in particular, not as a religion, but as an idiosyncratic worldview, was solidified due to tolerance principles, on which the Great Silk Road, among others factors, had a great influence throughout the years. Nowadays, the current contexts of Tengriism and the Silk Road have become essential components for the process of ethnic and cultural memory regeneration in modern Kazakhstan, thus fostering the national identity consolidation. The presented research focuses on three basic aspects: the specificity of cultural and historic landscape of the Great Steppe, conditioned by the historic presence and influence of the Silk Road; the various traces of Tengriism in modern Kazakhstan; and the potential of both Tengriism and the Silk Road evidenced in the present-day cultural policy of Kazakhstan.

the Great Silk Road Tengriism Kazakhstan identity

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Author: Tomasz Waśkiel
E-mail: tomasz.waskiel@gmail.com
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 112-127
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017407
PDF: npw/15/npw2017407.pdf

Streszczenie:

3Central Asian countries in trade structure with Poland are not a priority partners, also the involvement of Polish companies in this region is relatively small. While it is a region with high potential for cooperation, for example due to the considerable energy resources. Poland’s most important economic partner in this region is Kazakhstan, but even in this case it seems that the potential for cooperation is much greater than its current level. There are still many barriers that make it difficult to establish wider economic cooperation with all countries in the region. The aim of this article is to present the most important of them, obviously they have different character and intensity in each country of the region. They occur in international trade conditions, as well as in business environment. The custom policies of some Central Asian states are very unfavorable to the improvement of level of trade. Market access is often hampered by the creation of a number of restrictive formal conditions. Problems of the Central Asian economies, such as infrastructure challenges, high levels of debt and high rates of corruption should also be recognized as obstacles. However, despite many barriers, there are some chances and opportunities for the development of mutual economic cooperation, which are worth mentioning.

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Author: Nina Skórska-Książek
E-mail: n.skorska@tywoniuk.com.pl
Institution: Kancelaria Prawna Tywoniuk & Partners, Poland
Author: Mariusz Tywoniuk
E-mail: m.tywoniuk@tywoniuk.com.pl
Institution: Kancelaria Prawna Tywoniuk & Partners, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 127-141
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017408
PDF: npw/15/npw2017408.pdf

Streszczenie:

The conflict in Ukraine continues unabated since April 2014. At that time armed separatist attacks began (also supported by the Russian army and special forces), which strive to break the Donetsk and Lugansk districts from Ukrainian territory. This was a direct consequence of March’s Pro-Russian speeches and so-called – Crimean crisis which took place after the Euromaidan Revolution. Poland remains an undisputed ally of Ukraine, representing its interests in the European forum. This attitude positively influences the migration of Ukrainians into Poland, where they are looking for employment. The authors, aware of the above-mentioned circumstances, try to take up a rather complex subject of the impact of changes in the procedure of accessing the Polish labor market to restrictions on trade with Ukraine. They refer to a number of documents, with a view to better and more complete coverage of the topic. At the beginning the current state of affairs will be characterized and its influence on the current situation in the above field. On this basis changes are discussed and characterized and in conclusion the expected effects are indicated. The authors address a number of problems and answers appearing in the public debate more and more often like the demand for cheap labor from Ukraine, which can be a chance, but also a challenge for the Polish labor market.

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Author: Izabela Borucińska-Dereszkiewiecz
E-mail: Izabela.Borucinska@zie.pg.gda.pl
Institution: Politechnika Gdańska, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 142-166
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017409
PDF: npw/15/npw2017409.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper explores the development of trade and investment relations between Poland and Armenia in conditions of EU membership and in the first year of Armenia presence within the Eurasian Economic Union. The aim of the study is to determine the changes in the size and structure of trade and foreign investment both partners, as well as the identification of key factors influencing the evolution of the Polish-Armenian cooperation in this regard. Armenia both economically and politically is the relatively minor significant Poland’s partner. In the analyzed period, one can observe an increase in bilateral trade, but the growth of value and dynamics of Polish exports was more stable than imports. Small foreign investment, both Polish in Armenia and Armenian in Poland, is the area with untapped potential of bilateral cooperation. Poland’s membership in the EU was one of the factors that positively influenced on the intensification of bilateral trade and investment relations. In turn, Armenia’s entry to Eurasian Economic Union leads to the prediction that it will be a determinant which would have negative impact on Polish-Armenian cooperation in the long-term. There are a serious risk that the new agreement between the EU and Armenia will not be able to significantly reduce the impact of that factor.

Poland Armenia trade European Union the Eurasian Economic Union

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Author: Michał Kuryłowicz
E-mail: michal.kurylowicz@uj.edu.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 167-189
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017410
PDF: npw/15/npw2017410.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article describes the politics of memory of the Soviet Union in post-soviet Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (1991–2016). The analysis is based on the following documents: Presidents N. Nazarbaev and I. Karimov statements, their publications, the politics of commemoration and historical education in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan after 1991. Author tries to compare two national historical narrations over the Soviet regime and argues that Uzbeks and Kazakhs were used two different approach of criticism of soviet colonialism, related to their foreign policy towards Russia

postcommunism The Soviet Union colonialism The Republic of Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Russia politics of memory

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