- Source: Show
- Pages: 273-278
The article deals with a conception of the head of state while working on the March Constitution. The first part presents motives for adopting a republican form of the future system of Poland and describes draft constitutions drawn up by the Constitutional Bureau of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers. The second part presents characteristics of a political status of the head of state in the draft of the so-called “Survey,” the draft of W. Wakar as well as the governmental “Constitutional Declaration” and the draft of the Popular National Union. Moreover, it describes controversies connected with the titles of “Chief” and “President.” The third part presents a description of views on the head of state revealed during the works of the Constitutional Committee as well as in the second draft drawn up by the Council of Ministers, along with amendments made by the Skulski’s government. The last, 4th part discusses causes which influenced the final shape of the office of President in the March Constitution.
The Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 granted the President of the Republic of Poland the right to order a nationwide referendum on issues of special importance for the state. Managing such a referendum is not made by the President of the Republic of Poland alone but requires the consent of the Senate in the form of a resolution. In Poland, after the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland in 1997, the institution of the referendum was to use only three times. The last referendum, which is the subject of the analysis was ordered on September 6, 2015. The problem of ordering a referendum by the President of the Republic of Poland, although seemingly obvious, gave birth to a number of practical problems – interpretation used the term “cases of special importance for the country,” judicial supervision of constitutionality and legality of the referendum, the correctness of the formulation of the referendum question.
The institution of legislative initiative is a key element of the legislative process, because it starts legislative works. This concept has been widely discussed in the doctrine of constitutional law and it is a reason why in this article has been paid special attention to the pre-legislative stage. An attempt was made to distinguish the concept of the legislative inspiration from the legislative initiative. Basic features of a legislative initiative have been identified on the basis of constitutional provisions. Entities and ways to inspire the relevant bodies (which are able to bring a draft of the bill to the Sejm) have been determined under the provisions of various laws.
Ownership protection is one of the rights in the political system of the Republic of Poland. Article 21 of the Constitution safeguards ownership protection in general. Other property rights also seem to be protected on the basis of that general provision such as the ones resulting from Article 64 of the Constitution. Although the obligation of legal ownership protection is vested mainly in the state authorities, other entities, including private ones, are also obliged to comply. The right to property is not absolute and in accordance with Article 64 “may only be limited by means of a statute” but only to the extent not violating its substance. What seems worth considering in this context is the issue of limitations of the procurement of the agricultural real estate as well as liberalization of the provisions concerning tree removal.
It is hard not to admit that, the development of contemporary society results (or at least it shall result) in changes of state’s functioning. This trival statement, as for scientific discovery, has far – reaching implications for understanding in contemporary world the position of democratic state based on the rule of law. It is impossible not to see that since the French Revolution the state is under sustained transformations, which in such a deep scale were not observed in previous centuries. Without going into considerations on the modern statehood course, it is worth – when focus on institutional changes – bear in mind what consists of state’s administrative identity in relation with it’s citizens. In this context – how it is shaped and how take place the fulfilment of representative democracy with elements such as citizen’s participation and responsiveness. For easier, faster, and the most important – more effective, way of reaction on new threats and civilization challenges. Which – without any doubts there will be no lack of abovementioned ones in forthcoming years.
The article gives a comprehensive overview of the issues of sources of law in the Slovak Republic. It describes the different types of sources of law of Slovak Republic and their constitutional and legal regulation and also focuses on the analysis of the critical moments of constitutional and legislative process. The text explains the basic form of the national legal system, which in the traditional terms takes the form of a pyramid, the top of which are the Constitution and constitutional acts. This traditional concept is confronted with the current development of relations of the systems of international law, European law and national law, on the background of the theory of inter – system legal pluralism. The article is focused on the definition of the status of international treaties in the legal order of the Slovak Republic, with particular emphasis on the status of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the European Union. For this purpose the relevant case-law of the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic is demonstrated, and the issue of the concept of the relationship between the national law of the Slovak Republic and the European Union is raised. The unspoken material core of the Constitution of the Slovak Republic is to be considered as a criterion of recognition of the principle of the primacy of European Union law.
Funding of political parties in Estonia is determined mainly by the Political Parties Act enacted in 1994. It was amended many times and the last meaningful modifications were introduced in 2014. The act assumes a diversification of the financing sources and allows parties to be financed from allocations from the state budget, donations given by a natural persons, membership fees, transactions with the property of the political parties as well as loans. It is worth mentioning that clarity and transparency principles of political parties’ funding are guaranteed by an operation of the independent supervisory body – Estonian Party Funding Supervision Committee.
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