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- Pages: 301-306
The article is an attempt to identify the constitutional authorities of Poland, whose functioning can be improved through the application of solutions operating in other countries. The change in the way the Senate is elected is seen as an opportunity to improve the quality of the statutes passed in Poland. The appointment of the vice president is to improve the functioning of the office of the President of the Republic and to make him independent of the parliament. Entrusting the constitutional review of the law to the Supreme Court can contribute to the depoliticization of this process. A similar effect can be attained in the case of constitutional responsibility, provided that its common courts are enforced.
An article dedicated to semantic methods of defining of competitive norms in selected constitutions of Eastern European countries. The principle of legality requires public authorities to act solely on the basis of the applicable law and within the limits defined by them. This means the state body does only what the law expressly permits, and anything else not explicitly stated in the legal provision is prohibited. Therefore, it is very important the legislator speaks deliberately and precisely the legal language. The legislator must avoid a blurred notion and such, that allow for interpretative freedom in normative acts. Taking into account that all legislative activities we perceive to be non-accidental, each legal regulation should have a meaning that makes it impossible to make “arbitrary” decisions.
The purpose of this article is critical analysis of polish model of the government, adopted in the Constitution of 2nd April 1997, in the bearing of adopted factors of the rationalization. The key assumption of this article is to proof, that the legal constructions, reffered in the Constitution of 2nd April 1997, in the relation to political practice, don’t satisfy the conditions, typical for the ratinalized parliamentarism in its classical versions, for example in the Constitution of the Fifth French Republic of 1958 and in the 1949 Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Polish executive governance model assumes the existence of a two-part executive, in which the strength of the government lies in its constitutional competences and the power of the president is legitimized by his being selected in general elections. Such situation creates a space for conflict between the highest authorities. It is therefore worth to consider the desirability of making changes in the Polish governance model in the future and introducing into the system of governance a model based on the German system of chancellery governance.
Elections and its organization is a very important issue in democratic countries. Legislative shall look for interesting models in other countries. In Spanish and South American laws we can find some inspiring solutions in the fields like: electoral administration, external voting, electoral campaign, the day of general election, counting of votes. For sure those solutions take into consideration the peculiarity of particular countries, but can be a good inspiration for Polish legislative.
Of the numerous direct democracy instruments present in the Latvian Satversme, one of the most interesting solutions is the mechanism of a referendum concerning dissolution of the parliament, initiated by the head of state. A spectacular, and so far the only, example of application of this mechanism was the referendum held on 23 July 2011, as a result of which the Latvian Saeima was dissolved. The article analyzes the constitutional provisions that define this form of direct democracy, taking into account the Latvian political practice. The article focuses on the application of this institution in 2011 and emphasizes the associated social and political conditions. On the background of the Latvian constitutional and political system, in particular the mutual relations between the President of the State and the Saeima, the article presents the importance of this instrument to the Latvian political system and an evaluation of its potential with regard to the system of government.
There is no universal regulatory model of parliamentary ethics. The issues of parliamentary ethics are regulated in various countries by acts of varying degrees, usually statutes and parliamentary standing orders. There are countries where redress for abusive conduct of MPs is subject to general rules such as civil liability. Law in other states provides specific sanctions and means of redress for breach of ethics. Traditional forms of redress, referring to the rules of honor procedure of knighthood and nobility, include various forms of apology: personal, written, in mass media, and a particularly interesting type of apologies – to the whole parliament (chambers) as an offended “person”. The inter-war history of the Polish parliament provides an interesting example of an honorary court institution that dealt with cases of offence of one member by the other and the marshal’s court – gathering in case of the violation of the honor of a member by a non-parliamentarian. The honorary court survived until the first years of the communist period. Since 1997, there has been a parliamentary commission in the Polish Parliament, whose mode of operation and system of sanctions’ apply – does not meet its task. The aim of this article is to propose innovative and restorative changes in the area of the subject matter in Poland -- first of all – the restoration of court of Honour and the introduction of an apology from MPs and Senators for breach of ethics.
Croatian parliamentary law predicts institution of assistant of a deputy. Article is sacrificed analysis of this institution and practice in using it. Regulations of the constitution, electoral regulations and rules of the parliament have been analysied. Especially procedure of election deputies and rules of the incompatibilitas parliamentary mandate. Parliamentary practice in Croatia suggest that the most often cause of suspension an election mandate is becoming a minister in the government.
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