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The Republic of Nauru is an island country located in the south-western Pacific Ocean on the island of the same name. Nauru gained independence on 31 January 1968 and on the same day a new constitution came into force. The constitution of Nauru is similar to typical constitutions of modern democratic states, providing that the political system of Nauru should be based on such principles as independence, the republican form of government, the supremacy of the Constitution in the system of law, or the separation of powers. Nauru is an interesting country to research for several reasons. Firstly, Nauru is the smallest republic in the world and as the only state it does not have an official capital. Secondly, in parliamentary elections the Dowdall electoral system is used, which is a modified version of the Borda system considered to be an ideal electoral system in the theory of electoral law, which in national elections is not used anywhere else in the world. On the other hand, Nauru is an example of a state which has been brought from a paradise to an ecological degradation due to human activities involving the mining of phosphates and now it stands on the verge of bankruptcy.
The aim of the author of this article is to analyse the role played by the Constitutional Tribunal in the functioning of Polish political regime in the light of the provisions of the Constitution of 1997. Following hypothesis was verified: on the basis of the provisions of the Constitution, Constitutional Tribunal responds to conflicts arising from the dualistic structure of the executive and thus plays an arbitrary role in the functioning of Polish political regime. The article consists of four parts. The first defines the concept of the political regime and characterizes Polish system of government, with particular emphasis on its distinguishing feature – dualistic structure of executive. The second part was devoted to the description of arbitrary function of the Constitutional Tribunal in the Polish political regime. The third one describes ruling of the Tribunal that defines the central constitutional authority of the State that is entitled to represent the Polish Republic in the meetings of the European Council, as an example of the implementation of the aforementioned arbitrary role of Constitutional Tribunal. Findings and conclusions are presented in the end.
The aim of this publication is to discuss issues of finality of judgments of the Constitutional Court. Noticeable date in the history of this matter is year 1997, which is associated with the enactment of the Constitution. From beginning of the constitutional judiciary (since 1982) until the enactment of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, a view of lack of need for any extra-parliamentary (and even more independent of parliament) forms of the constitutionality of legislation dominated the scene. And it was conditioned by the political system. This meant that the Constitutional Tribunal’s ruling of non-compliance with the provisions of the constitutional laws have been subjected to the control of the legislature. Work towards adoption of the new Constitution began as a result of a major political changes after 1989. Actual beginning of the work is dated on 7 December 1989, when Constitutional Commissions of each of the houses of the Parliament were appointed, and later on the Constitutional Commission of the National Assembly. It was during the work of the Constitutional Commission of the National Assembly when issue of finality of judgments was discussed. In this article I will discuss that discussion and introduce concepts of finality of judgments of the Constitutional Court in the drafts of Constitution, to finally present a model of finality of judgements adopted in the Constitution of 1997.
The right to health care in the Constitution of the Italian Republic holds a special position among the rights and freedoms while the Italian Constitutional Court has many times dealt with this problem in its judicial practice. The article focuses on the analysis of the selected case law of the Italian Constitutional Court in relation to health care, in particular the one relating to the issue of involuntary treatment and the principle of patient consent to health care, the limits of forced medical treatment, basic levels of health services as well as the constitutionality of the regulations relating to the issue of artificial fertilization (in vitro).
The article describes the process of shaping constitutional provisions concerning local selg-government and presents a phenomenon of increasing constitutionalisaton of this element of state policy. Author indicates four stages of this process: 1) establishing a principle of local self-government participation into system of public authority (1989), 2) establishing a constitutional chapter regarding structure of local self-government (1990), 3) complementing this regulation with provisions concerning self-governmental tasks (1992), 4) adopting the Constitution 1997, in which a chapter concerning local self-government.
Any discussion of human rights in post-colonial countries in Asia conducted from the perspective of Western civilization faces many obstacles, particularly related to the existing cultural differences, or even barriers and different traditions. Postcolonial states, despite the remaining remnants of the colonial era – visible example in their legal system, which still contains normative acts adopted before obtaining sovereignty – very firmly based universal adoption of the catalog of human rights as defined in the UN covenants, as well as the application of the standards in their compliance, which would be in line with those elaborated within the framework of the UN. The adopted ideology of so-called „Asian values” leads to a re-widening ideological differences, or even philosophical, in the further development of democracy between Western countries and Asia. At the same time, this gives rise to extract new direction of research, which is to analyze the development of human rights in post-colonial countries of Asia and the West, the study of unknown problems that will come up in relation to the existence of the doctrine of „Asian values”. The aim of this publication is to present current issues related to the debate on human rights, which recently appeared in Singapore and India.
This article has no aspirations of all aspects which is related to euthanasia. Its aim is to try to draw attention to the most typical issues and presenting them in different contexts, historical, medical, social, legal and theological, with special consideration of waged discussions and solutions applied in Switzerland, the Netherlands and Poland.
The relationship between the legislature and the executive in the Kingdom of Spain has been based on the principles of a parliamentary cabinet system, in which the government that is appointed by the monarch must enjoy the confidence of the representative body. Therefore, the existence of the cabinet depends on the support of a stable majority in parliament. However, it does not mean that the legislative branch dominates the government. The Spanish Constitution created the model of rationalised parliamentarism by establishing procedures that not only favour the cabinet stability, but also ensure the effective fulfilment of its functions, which are the subject of this article. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the issue, the article focuses on the key roles and competences of the government. Following the example of many Spanish papers on this subject, the author uses the constitutional classification of functions of the government in the Kingdom of Spain.
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