Author: Grzegorz Pastuszko
E-mail: grzegorz.pastuszko@op.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Source: Show
Pages: 9-21
DOI Address: 10.15804/ppk.2015.04.01
PDF: ppk/26/ppk2601.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article deals with the problem of the standing order of the National Assembly in Poland. The author indicates the reasons why it should be enacted as an unified, including all necessary issues, act, contrary to the present one, which is divided into a few independent, only partly adopted and referring to the significant competences of the National Assembly acts. The main argument is that the legislative method, that has been chosen by the lawmaker, seems to violate the constitutional provisions. It also looks not to be in accordance with the rules of legislative technique. Last but not least is that the present legal status causes a procedural gap, which means that some solutions, involved in the bill of State Tribunal, dealing with the procedure of presidential impeachment, cannot be applied until the entire standing order is adopted. Taking into account these arguments, the author raises a de lege ferenda postulate, aiming to change the current formula of the standing order of the National Assembly.

regulamin Zgromadzenia Narodowego autonomia parlamentarna

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Author: Tomasz Strzałkowski
E-mail: ts80@o2.pl
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Bankowa we Wrocławiu
Source: Show
Pages: 23-50
DOI Address: 10.15804/ppk.2015.04.02
PDF: ppk/26/ppk2602.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article focuses on the issue of restrictions on active and passive electoral law according to the place of residence. The article discusses regulations on the census of residence that have been in force since 1989. Changes to the electoral law related to the place of residence were caused by the Polish accession to the European Union. This involved the granting of voting rights in elections to the European Parliament and partly in the local elections, to those citizens of the EU who live in Poland. This article shows a problem of proper verification of residence in the electoral process too. The author notices also that existing solutions concerning the census of residence in the local government election law should be changed, because the current ones do not correspond with reality.

cenzusy wyborcze czynne i bierne prawo wyborcze miejsce zamieszkania w prawie wyborczym

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Author: Grzegorz Maroń
E-mail: grzemar6@op.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Source: Show
Pages: 51-76
DOI Address: 10.15804/ppk.2015.04.03
PDF: ppk/26/ppk2603.pdf

Streszczenie:

Legal obligation to take the oath may interfere with the fundamental rights of the individual, especially with freedom of conscience and religion. In the particular states there are various ways to remove these type of collision, for example, the ability to take affirmation in place of the oath-taking or the extraordinary admissibility of the oath’s text modification. The given options are anchored in the statute law provisions or in the judicial practice. Not always, however, the indicated solutions are fully responsive to possible conscientious objections. In the author’s view, instead of derogation of the title institution from legal orders, oaths’ texts should attain the “appropriate” form – ie. oath wording refers to a relatively universal values –and a certain degree of flexibility in the interpretation of the law is needed. The obligation to take the oath and obligation to respect fundamental rights may be seen as the optimization requirements, and the most proper way to remove conflicts between them in a particular case is to use the method of proportional weighing in accordance with the Robert Alexy’s theory of legal principles.

prawa człowieka przysięga ślubowanie wolność sumienia i religii

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Author: Hanna Bednarz
E-mail: hannabednarz@yahoo.com
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
Source: Show
Pages: 77-102
DOI Address: 10.15804/ppk.2015.04.04
PDF: ppk/26/ppk2604.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Swiss constitutional popular initiative is often perceived as a prime example of such institution. It is characterized by its direct type (it is directly submitted to the vote of the people), it can be presented in a form of either a draft proposal or an idea for a future amendment, it is not thematically limited and finally, the conditions for its approval are not too rigorous. For its assessment to be complete, its practical application also needs to be analyzed. Since it is only the Federal Constitution that can be amended in a way of the popular initiative, usually the amended provisions need to be subsequently concretized by lower-rang legal acts which can allow the Federal Assembly to neutralize the goals of the initiative committee. In order to assess the effectiveness of this institution, the initiatives submitted to the vote of the people and the cantons between 2001 and 2014 were analyzed, with a particular attention being paid to the accepted initiatives and the subsequent legislative process commenced to enact legal acts aiming at concretizing the constitutional provisions.

demokracja bezpośrednia inicjatywa ludowa Szwajcaria

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Author: Izabela Gawłowicz
E-mail: izabela.gawlowicz@ gmail.com
Institution: Uniwersytet Zielonogórski
Source: Show
Pages: 103-124
DOI Address: 10.15804/ppk.2015.04.05
PDF: ppk/26/ppk2605.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Author analysis the role of international courts in the understanding and implementation legal institutions situated on the border between public international law and domestic law, on the example of the jurisdictional immunity of the state. The level of contact of those institutions under discussion relates to state’s using the immunity and human rights protection with special regard to the access to the court. The functions of international courts in discussed scope are particularly important in the opposite to public international law powerlessness according to the codification of its fundamental institutions. The lack of the treaty regulations and low specificity of custom norms relocate the liability of analyzing the substance, the scope of application, the admissibility of the limitation of immunity on international courts, whom statements can be a pattern for domestic courts. Unfortunately the judgments of international courts as well as domestic ones are not consistent – example of what are the differences in the approach to the immunity between European Tribunal of Human Rights and International Court of Justice. The lack of consistent vision of jurisdictional immunity is typical for international and domestic courts and in general is nothing special. However significant differences in the statements of main international courts deepen the uncertainty according to immunity’s scope, substance, possibilities of limitation (or lack of possibilities of limitation), that is especially deep regarding to simultaneous slowdown of codification activity.

prawo dostępu do sądu immunitet jurysdykcyjny państwa suwerenna równość państw kolizja praw

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Author: Mariusz Bidziński
E-mail: mariusz@bidzinski.pl
Institution: Szkoła Wyższej Psychologii Społecznej w Warszawie
Source: Show
Pages: 125-134
DOI Address: 10.15804/ppk.2015.04.06
PDF: ppk/26/ppk2606.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Act of 13th June 2013 to change laws regulating performing certain professions definitely facilitated access to the profession of a legal adviser as well as by opening paths ignoring legal counsel apprenticeship program, as well as by enabling migration between the legal professions. Because of that appeared a question of who is entitled to define the rules for access to the profession of public confidence. In this context, it is important to consider, in particular, article 17 of the Constitution of the Republic Of Poland for professional self-government. The professional self-government of legal advisers is designed to ensure the proper practice of the profession of a legal counsel within the limits of the public interest. The Constitutional Court has scaled that deregulation of the legal profession does not affect the competence and rights of professional self-government referred in article 17 of the Constitution, despite the fact that, in the opinion of the Court, the only body able to form the conditions of access to the profession of a legal adviser is the legislature. The role of professional self-government is the compliance of the established law, in particular the assessment of the candidates for the fulfilment of the statutory requirements for registration on the list of legal advisors, as well as those carrying out the profession of legal adviser. In fact deregulation of access to the profession of a legal adviser has resulted in an increase in the responsibility of the professional self-government for the quality of services provided by legal councils.

deregulacja samorząd zawodowy radcowie prawni

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Author: Jakub Robel
E-mail: j.robell@interia.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
Source: Show
Pages: 135-157
DOI Address: 10.15804/ppk.2015.04.07
PDF: ppk/26/ppk2607.pdf

Streszczenie:

One of the important dimensions of the evaluation of society existence is energy security. Providing the right framework for the electricity sector is the basis for the operation of this type of security in its economic dimension, and so this issue can be seen as one of the top priorities of energy policies. This raises the need for an appropriate legal framework to enable proper interaction of administration bodies responsible for the overall relations, both inside and outside the state. Associated with this is also the issue of the appropriate rank of the fundamental – constitutional – norms. The Polish example of a system of constitutional law shows that, despite the lack of a reference to this issue in the Constitution, by means of interpretation of “sustainable development” (art. 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland) one can find the relevant legislation, allowing the chief state authorities to carry out the activity in relation to the issue of “energy security”.

Konstytucja RP prezydent bezpieczeństwo energetyczne zrównoważony rozwój Rada Ministrów

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Author: Michał Zbigniew Dankowski
E-mail: m.dankowski@vp.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Source: Show
Pages: 159-176
DOI Address: 10.15804/ppk.2015.04.08
PDF: ppk/26/ppk2608.pdf

Streszczenie:

Spain is a unitary state according the Constitution of 1978, although it is administratively divided into autonomous regions. Basque Country has large autonomous aspirations. Over the years, coexistence in larger state organisms, the Basques had relative autonomy and obtained many rights and privileges named fueros. Despite the temporary restriction or partial repeal during the nineteenth century and in the dictatorship era of Francisco Franco, the Spanish Constitution took into account the ambitions of the Basques respecting their individuality also in the field of restoring fueros, updated to the current situation of the state. Basque Country has in some fields greater autonomy than other regions of Spain, which is reflected in the Statute of the Autonomy. The Basque society largely accepts current conditions of the autonomy regulated by the Constitution and the Statute of the Autonomy. This resulted in, among others, partial social discontent against the plan to modernize the Statute of Autonomy, and most of all, marginalized terrorist organization ETA.

Hiszpania autonomia Konstytucja Hiszpanii Kraj Basków ETA Statut Autonomiczny

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