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- Pages: 236-238
Decentralization of the state was one of the most complicated processes of the democratic transition carried out in Poland at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. Although a quarter of the century has passed from events that have initiated the proces of restoration of the local self-government, this problem all the time returns in the public and scientific discussion. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to try to assess 25 years of local self-government in the Polish Third Republic.
The present analysis is devoted to the financial autonomy of communes and the ways of understanding it. The author analyzes the legal, jurisdictional and actual determinants of the commune’s financial independence and points to the consequences following from them. The author poses a hypothesis that the constitutional value in the form of the financial autonomy of communes is not full realized by the parliament in contemporary Poland, with the Constitutional Tribunal underestimating it. The increase in the revenues of communes is not adequate to the duties assigned to them by the parliament. The consequences of the ongoing process include an increased debt of the communes and their problems with realization of the needs of local communities, the latter being the goal whose realization was the reason to have established the local self-government.
Act of 6 September, 2001 on access to public information guarantee everyone the right to public information, but the right to public information is subject to limitation of the secret of an entrepreneur. The same act on access to public information does not contain the definition of the secret of an entrepreneur. We are forced in this case to apply Article 11.4 of of Act of combating unfair competition. Company confidentiality is understood to include the entrepreneur’s technical, technological organisational or other information having commercial value, which is not disclosed to the public to which the entrepreneur has taken the necessary steps to maintain confidentiality. In this article indicates a problem associated with the provision of public information, because of the secret of an entrepreneur.
Before several years followed in Poland the rebirth of the territorial autonomy. From the time of the beginning the part and task of the local government systematically increase and the range of his assignments is constantly extended. From this even if the point of view constitutional guarantees of the protection of citizen’s rights in relations with structures of the territorial government and the inspection of his kelter are an interested investigative theme. From the point of view of the mechanisms of the inspection of the administrative activity of the local government and constitutional guarantees of the protection and the realization of the rule of the self-government on the first plan is shooting ahead jurisdiction activity of municipal revocatory governing bodies – organs about the character of hybrid, performing functions inspections of instance about the administrative character, though with typical competences for the organ of the administration of justice whose simultaneously the character did not become brightly explicit. Therefore the problem of the qualification of their character, the structure and the function in the system of the authority, and all the more the qualification of the constitutional part is interested and demands the reflection – all the more de lege ferenda, especially from the perspective need their constitutional regulation. The article is an attempt of the performance of the idea of the activity of municipal revocatory governing bodies and their further development.
The article regards to legal status of a starost of a county (poviat). There are doubts if this entity is an organ of public authority. According to statutory regulations the starost is a member (chairman) of The Board of Poviat – an executive organ of a poviat. Legal provisions don’t provide that a stoarost is an organ of self – government neither is this subject an organ of government administration. A starost performs self-government functions (obligations) as well as functions of government administration. The Polish Constitution generally separates local administration from government administration. The principle of decentralization provides that local government and its authorities are independent of organs of government administration. In practice the statost executes tasks of local and government administration. Because of this – this entity is treated as one of organs of government administration. The author of the article claims that this solution violates the Constitutional provisions. This legal act guarantees the independence of local – government and its authorities.
samorząd terytorialny powiat starosta powiatowy pozycja ustrojowa organ władzy publicznej kompetencje starosty zadania własne zadania zlecone podział kompetencji administracja rządowa administracja samorządowa
Act of 7 November 2008 on European grouping of territorial cooperation constitutes an act implementing to Polish legislation provisions of Regulation EC No 1082/2006 of the European Parliament and the Council of 5 July 2006, enabling the creation of European groupings of territorial cooperation as organizations serving to promote and facilitate cooperation between entities from different countries. The drafted amendment to the law, forced by changes in the European Union legislation brings forth, in relation to particular provisions, certain comments requiring broader discussion. The article specifically addresses the scope of the anticipated transformation, indicating the concerns in relation to their present form. Essential meaning was assigned to necessity to enlarge the circle of potential members of the European grouping of territorial cooperation, including statutory definitions adopted by the promotor, the form of consent to the participation of Polish entities in the grouping, the consequences of changes in the directory of data subject to EGTC registration led by the minister of foreign affairs, the procedure for reporting changes to the Convention of groupings and issues of control over the management of public funds by the EGTC. In conclusion, the finding was formulated that the current form of assumptions of project of amendments to the Act of 2008., may provoke accusations of inconsistency of the part of its legislation with European Union law.
In the article the Authors presented a problem of extraordinary measures in the event situations of particular danger in cyberspace. The analysis of this issue is made on the basis of constitutional and legal solutions (Act of martial law, Act of the state of emergency, Act of the state of natural disaster). The Authors refered to the concept of cyberspace and classified the risks in this area. The also assessed the appropriateness of the measures adopted by the legislature.
The existence of cabinet in parliamentary systems of government depends on the parliament, which appoints and dismiss cabinet. Aim of the article is comparative analyze of cabinet appointment method in 11 post-communist countries of central and eastern Europe, which are members of European Union, based on constitutional provisions. Research question is whether constitution leave the presidents, who formally nominate the governments, the possibility of real influence on the cast of prime minister post. As a result, I position constitutions on a two dimension scale in which the ends are countries in which the president in principle has no possibility appoint the cabinet against the will of the parliamentary majority (the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland and Slovenia) and countries where the constitution formally leaves the President ability to influence the composition of the government (Lithuania, Hungary and Slovakia). Other countries (Croatia, Romania, Latvia) are in between these extremes.
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Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart