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Author: Gulmyra S. Sultanbayeva
Institution: Al–Farabi Kazakh National University in Almaty (Kazakhstan)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 7–12
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014001
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014001.pdf

Streszczenie:

The West versus the East. Th ese two parts together make the world. The values of these two separate civilizations, which have up to now been so diff erent, are merging together as diff erences and distinguishing characteristics diminish. We therefore tend to discuss civilization dialogue as if it is a category of general spiritual values. As part of globalization the process it is logical that policies are pursued which aim to preserve national, ethnical, local, national, governmental and popular identities and peculiarities. Preserving and developing national identities is one of the key preoccupations of globalization. Th e history of civilization is developing. In spite of this development, however, equality has not been achieved, and the battle to decide winners and losers continues. In some areas the West is regarded as being ahead of the East, and in some cases vice versa. Th is is a natural phenomenon, however it is not a process with a single outcome. It has secondary purposes. The process of globalization in which Western and Eastern civilizations intersect with and civilize one other makes them unite. Th is phenomenon is not necessarily detrimental but has negative consequences. Scientifi c research has shown that ‘human equity is based on the fulfi llment of two diff erent origins – the West and the East.

 

civilization dialogues Concord Dialectics West and East

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Author: Marek Pietraś
Institution: Maria Curie–Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 13–47
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014002
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014002.pdf

Streszczenie:

East-Central Europe can be easily distinguished, despite diff erent views on the subject, as a geographical space. It cannot be said, however, that it constitutes a distinct and coherent political, economic, social, and cultural space. Changes taking place in contemporary Europe, in particular those associated with the integration processes, mark a new, specifi c dividing line, different from that during the Cold War. It runs across the geographical, and, consequently, social, political, economic and cultural space of East-Central Europe. Th e research objective is therefore to identify and analyze the “fracture” of social space in this part of Europe. For research purposes it is assumed that social space, denoting the whole of social behaviors and ties as well as material products of human activity, is a complex, multifaceted construction. Especially signifi cant seems to be the problem of the political empowerments of society and its limitations, the problem of the socio-economic situation, and the problem of cultural identity. It is also assumed that the EU’s political strategy currently being pursued, consisting in relinquishing the prospect of EU enlargement towards the east to include selected countries of the so-called post-Soviet area, contributes to strengthening “the fracture” of East-Central Europe. Th is is apparently the result of the European Union’s implementation of “A Europe of Projects” strategy, which is the measures undertaken under the European Neighbourhood Policy, Eastern Partnership, or Back Sea Synergy.

Social Space Europa Środkowo-Wschodnia Social Space in East–Central Europe

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Author: Andrzej Chodubski
Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland) & Gdańsk Higher School of Humanities (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 48–63
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014003
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014003.pdf

Streszczenie:

In the reality of the creation of the new civilizational face of the world, caused primarily by scientifi c and technical progress, international legal and formal solutions, education oriented on shaping the understanding of directions of cultural changes, one can observe trends both to uni- fication and diversifi cation of the image of human life, and in that the blurring of the boundaries between the core values of cultural life. In this image the strength of tradition is confronted with a modernity. Political divisions of the world are an example of this reality, and in that the blurring of the boundaries between the states. In the formation of the new spatial-political division borderlands are becoming a specifi c stage. For them important tasks are appointed in close-up among states, nations and ethnic groups, which are directly adjacent, and in that remains in the tradition of mythologized relationship, usually about the negative colouring. Borderlands are diff erently comprehended in the global and local space.

Borderland Cultural Separateness

Author: Jenny Yang
Institution: Queen's University (Canada)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 64–83
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014004
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014004.pdf

Streszczenie:

Questions of citizenship and nationhood have increasingly gained prominence given the internationalisation of employment, especially with respect to the free movement of workers within the EU. Scholar Rogers Brubaker has suggested that an absence of a strong identity as a nationstate and the lack of an established national citizenship have contributed to “the confused and bitter politics of immigration and citizenship during the last quarter-century” in Britain. This legacy continues to this day. For instance, on the fi rst of January 2014, migration and employment restrictions on Romanians and Bulgarians were lift ed, provoking mass public outcry in the UK. In a recent poll, three quarters of respondents expressed concern about the possible infl ux of Romanians and Bulgarian migrants. Playing on populist fears, London mayor Boris Johnson quipped: “We can do nothing to stop the entire population of Transylvania – charming though most of them may be – from trying to pitch camp at Marble Arch”. British ministers have even considered launching a negative publicity campaign in Bulgaria and Romania to dissuade migrants, highlighting the dreary weather and lack of job opportunities in Britain.

migration Citizenship Nation–State UK Policy Romanian and Bulgarian Migration

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Author: Ewa Ganowicz
Institution: University of Opole (Poland)
Author: Bożena Wroniszewska
Institution: University of Opole (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 84–107
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014005
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014005.pdf

Streszczenie:

In the era of globalization, unifi cation and the disappearance of borders, paradoxically, increasingly important is their determination, stressing the diversity, regionalization eff orts to achieve autonomy. Th is is evident in the ongoing scientific discussion at the junction of many areas where there is the issue of the border is quite clearly marked. Th ese considerations place them in the context of politics, and therefore power, but located locally. This authority, its scope, instruments are determined by the nature of the border, which is analyzed in relation to the center. Th us, they are seen as places where all processes are either specific or autonomous in relation to those occurring in the centers, or (as they are parts of a greater whole) underlying causes of phenomena are searched beyond their borders1. In literature, the frontier is treated not as the periphery, located far away from the border territories, but diff erent in many ways, integral components of an organization, equipped with a certain degree of independence regarding the implementation of their own needs.

Borderland Local Authority

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Author: Tomasz Hoffmann
Institution: University of Technology in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 108–12
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014006
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014006.pdf

Streszczenie:

For some time now, an issue of the Europeanization has been quite deeply explored in literature on political science. Numerous authors take on that subject in a variety of contexts, which means that it is a problem that is very interesting from a scientifi c point of view. Th ere are plenty of Polish scientists researching this area, as well as a great number of foreign publications. An interest of Europeanization’s processes is most often investigated in the context of public politics. In this article, by the use of a nomological – deductive approach, the author endeavors to make an explanation of the term Europeanization and also to show to what extend and how the Europeanization of Polish armed forces succeeded in the context of their participation in missions lead by the European Union.

security studies the European Union security Military Forces Missions in the European Union Polish Safety Policy National Armed

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Author: Artur Niedźwiecki
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 122–140
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014007
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014007.pdf

Streszczenie:

Europe, slowly but surely, appears to be recovering from one of the most damaging financial crises ever, but still our continent dangles in a sort of political suspension. The “Eastern Enlargement” from 2004 has been digested badly by the European Union. Currently, we are witnessing an overwhelming shortage of common ideas for the Community consisting of the twenty eight Member States, which is striking and, is in fact a grievous phenomenon. A number of exclusive political and economic initiatives realized beyond the institutional skeleton of the Union evolve, at least partially, into disruption of pure solidarity and rudimentary concord among nations. The multi-tier Europe, evidently faltering at a political crossroads, is gradually rising from the diff erentiation of the Community and, in consequence, presupposes some kind of socio-political and economic Centre and Periphery.

the European Union European integration Polish Membership in the European Union

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Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Author: Fabrice Morin
Institution: University of Franche-Comté in Besançon (France)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 141–154
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014008
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014008.pdf

Streszczenie:

In the very first years of his presidency, François Mitterrand thought that he will really be successful on a day that another socialist was elected as a president of the Republic. This statement seemed to be prophetic with the victory of François Hollande, which took place 24 years after the victory of François Mitterrand and – after the sequential defeats of the Socialist Party’s candidates Lionel Jospin (in 1995 and 20022) and Ségolène Royal (in 2007) – allowed them finally to take the helm of the French government. The election of François Hollande was not a surprise. The very first opinion polls designated him as a winner showing the small popularity of Nicolas Sarkozy. Then one should estimate that the final electoral result obtained by François Hollande (i.e. 51.7% of the votes), from the point of view of the pre-election predictions of research institutes for the public opinion was a rather weak performance.

François Hollande Elysee Palace French government France French Lef

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Author: Agnieszka Kasińska–Metryka
Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 155–163
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014009
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014009.pdf

Streszczenie:

The subject of the discussion below refers to the political situation in present-day Spain in the context of a broad systemic crisis (economic, political, values, leadership, discourse etc.). Moreover, it covers the media’s impact on the administrating elite who are also subject to the crisis. Th e research questions concern the nature of the interactions among the trifecta of political actors, the media and public opinion. The fundamental question is to what extent the crisis of political elites is a result of systemic dysfunction (a so called de-democratisation of political life) or an eff ect of the media’s activities, which have disclosed and publicised some of the dysfunctions of the above elites. This article will attempt to verify the hypothesis of the aforementioned de-democratisation process in Spain, the extent of the media presence in political life, and the mediatisation of their politics.

Crisis of Spain’s Political Elites Spain Mass Media crisis political elites

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Author: Grzegorz Ronek
Institution: John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 164–190
DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014010
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014010.pdf

Streszczenie:

The British political system is unusual in many aspects. First of all, Britain lacks a written constitution. The country’s political system has long appeared a model of stability in a changing world. It should be noted that European integration has had a considerable impact on the British political system. However, the election of Tony Blair government in 1997 was a starting point towards serious constitutional reforms. One of the most important was the devolution and The House of Lords reform. Apart from it Human Rights and Freedom of Information Act were introduced. In 2000 a directly elected mayor of London was elected. In 2010 a coalition government was established with David Cameron as the Prime Minister from the Conservative Party. The second were the Liberal Democrats. This coalition in itself was unusual in Britain’s post-war history. The set of changes in the British political system was an important part of the coalition agreement. The first stage was The Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 which provided for a referendum on the voting system for UK Parliament and reduced the number of constituencies. The second was The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 which set the date of the next general election as 7th May 2015 and on the first Thursday in every fifth year there after. There are only two circumstances when early elections can be held. The Monarch no longer dissolves Parliament, but the Act does not affect her/his power to prorogue Parliament. In 2011 proposed reforms to the royal succession were also announced. They changed the rules of succession and the fi rst-born child of a monarch would be heir apparent regardless of gender. Apart from it there were plans to reform the House of Lords again. Its current serving members were to be replaced by a semi-elected house of as few as 300 members (240 elected and 60 appointed). The plans failed, because they did not gain acceptance. Constitutional changes since 1997 have been extensive, but there was no holistic view on the reform process. Nowadays the country faces the possible separation of Scotland, which could lead to the breakup of the United Kingdom. It could be a revolutionary change of the British political system. However, there are close links between Scotland and the rest of the country and in all probability the status quo will prevail.

political system referendum devolution British constitutional reforms coalition

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