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Author: Wojciech Stankiewicz
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 191–208
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014011
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014011.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Article reflects on the influence and distortion of mass media in modern days. Its original role of a bearer of truth, accurate information and its role, nowadays, used mainly to manipulate the audience to achieve a specific reaction. The overwhelming forces of media are illustrated on the examples of the American conflict with Iraq from 2003 to 2010 starting with the World Trade Centre Attack and ending with the opinion of the polish audience concerning the American-Iraqi confl ict. Th e article is divided in two parts, analyzing mass media and the foreign policy of George W. Bush over Iraq aft er September 11, 2001 and the role of US and Polish media in the process of citizens’ preparation for the conflict in Iraq. Th e first part approaches the importance of mass media for U.S. foreign policy against Iraq, created by President George W. Bush, especially after the September 11, 2001. It shows also how far society is involved in the maintaining of this policy. The article focuses on the influence of media during conflicts and how the public opinion and military actions influence one another. The second part focused on the supposed role of media to inform and prepare the people for conflicts. Instead, the society is overwhelmed with information so the risk shows, that the necessary news get partially lost. To prove this distortion a survey was made showing an accordance to the given information with different newspapers, radio and TV stations. Regarding the increasing of fear and misleading public opinion the Polish media did not react differently than the American. This process resulted in the opinion of polish society that their military forces should join the conflict in order to protect their freedom and safety.

conflit mediass confl ict in Iraq

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Author: Magdalena Wiśniewska
Institution: University of Humanities and Sciences in Kielce (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 209–228
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014012
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014012.pdf

Streszczenie:

The United States Secret Service is an American federal law enforcement agency that is part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Until March 1, 2003, the Secret Service was part of the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The Secret Service has two distinct areas of responsibility: Financial Crimes, covering missions such as prevention and investigation of counterfeiting of U.S. currency and U.S. treasury securities, and investigation of major fraud; Protection, which entails ensuring the safety of current and former national leaders and their families, such as the President, former presidents, vice presidents, presidential candidates, visiting heads of state and foreign embassies. Protecting national leaders, visiting heads of state and government, designated sites and National Special Security Events has become more complex with the evolution of conventional and non-conventional weapons and technology. In meeting new challenges, the Secret Service will continue to provide progressive training, devise and implement sound security plans, measures, equipment and systems to ensure the safety of individuals, sites and events under Secret Service protection. Th e Secret Service’s unique investigative and protective mission is sustained by a strong, multi-tiered infrastructure of science, technology and information systems; administrative, professional and technical expertise; and management systems and processes.

telecommunications fraud computer fraud money laundering investigative mission protective mission the U.S. Department of Homeland Security homeland security national security the U.S. Secret Service

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Author: Tomasz Hoffmann
Institution: University of Technology in Poznań (Poland)
Author: Joanna Hoffmann
Institution: University of Technology in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 229–240
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014013
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014013.pdf

Streszczenie:

Safety and defence studies have a very short history, as they were created quite recently. Hence the possible assumption that research methods that are used in them are in a sowing stage. In spite of it, there are researchers that decided to undertake a variety of explorative challenges and they try to use different research method, very often choosing them in reference to investigated reality. Therefore, it can be assumed that the methodology of safety and defence studies has not completely developed (yet). Borrowing methods from different sciences is a very difficult venture which causes situations when research results are false or they do not support any of the stated hypotheses. In the objective article, a review of research methods used for now in safety studies has been made. Of course, it can not be suggested that they are the only and the best ones. Actually, scarcely the quantity of conducted researches and investigated issues can let researchers make an observation which method is a leading one. For now, researchers try to look for accurate solutions for them and the investigated matter at the same time. It is very similar to a promotional work (such as essays, researches). In universities, where degree dissertations and Masters’ theses are being created, different research methods are used to apply to them. It happens quite often that the used methodology derives from pedagogical sciences. Some of the universities use research methods borrowed from political sciences. Another ones use methods that are quite sophisticated and very often draw from a variety of scientific disciplines. To recapitulate, one can hope that it is only the matter of time until together with maturating of the new discipline which is safety and defence studies, some methodological patterns will also be created.

Safety and defence studies Methodological analysis Scientifi c research

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Author: Dorota Litwin–Lewandowska
Institution: Maria Curie–Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 241–250
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014014
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014014.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper discusses the problem of difficult conflicts, whose dynamics is characterised by intensifi cation of factors influencing the course of a conflict, and conflicts which are considerably difficult to resolve. Among many conflicts of high intensity and escalation it is legitimate to identify a specific group of conflicts which can be viewed in a special way due to their parameters. The author of the paper suggests that they should be distinguished and regarded as a specific type of conflict called an expansive conflict. Expansive means expanding in size or scope, aiming at extension of influence or power, or in another sense: insistent and intemperate in expression of feelings, quick-tempered, effusive. Expansiveness means striving for enhancement of one’s impact, impulsiveness and effusiveness, as well as a kind of possessiveness manifested in extending one’s influence to more and more new areas. Therefore, asking about expansiveness, we pose questions: why – who – where – how strong – how fast. Th ese are the questions about the origin, parties to the confl ict, its place, force and rate of spreading. This uncomplicated model can be used to describe a conflict. The introduction of the notion of an expansive conflict can be justified and applied in practice for conflict processes of the extraordinary course, especially in relation to macro conflicts originating in the sphere of politics (superpower policy versus democratisation), economy (corporations) or culture (expansion of mass culture).

social conflict expansive conflict conflict dynamics conflict intensity conflict range conflict scope intractable conflict macro conflict mega conflict

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Author: Herbert Gnaś
Institution: Independent Researcher (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 251–274
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014015
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014015.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Kyoto Protocol as the Framework Convention on Climate Change is a milestone in the formation and development of the climate change regime that is aimed at controlling global warming by the international community. But besides that this international agreement also became a factor that created new circumstances and opportunities for international cooperation. These circumstances were created for all the participants of the regime: the states, the non-governmental organizations on behalf of the societies and the business organizations as well as the corporations. The Kyoto Protocol became a catalyst for international cooperation between these international relations’ actors at all stages of its existence: the negotiation process, the ratifi cation of it and its implementation, leading to the establishment of new political, social and especially economic ties.

The Kyoto Protocol climate change regime international cooperation non-governmental organizations Joint Implementation Clean Development Mechanism

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Author: Marek Górka
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 275–297
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014016
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014016.pdf

Streszczenie:

The role of the public sphere has increasingly come to the fore in studies concerning the state of democracy in Europe. Similarly the role of culture in formations and transformations not only of personal but of political identities as well has attracted attention. It is the purpose of this article to bring these areas together in a comprehensive approach to media, culture and democracy with a view of the public sphere as a crucial mediating field. Article focuses on the role of media in sustaining and developing democracy, a democratic dialogue and in fulfilling the role of media as the critical watchdog of the political system and other powerful players on the European scene. The concept of knowledge democracy is meant to enable a new focus on the relationships between knowledge production and dissemination, the functioning of the media and our democratic institutions. The emerging concept of knowledge democracy moreover obliges us to realise that the institutional frameworks of today’s societies may appear to be deficient as far as the above mentioned undercurrents, trends and other developments demand change. Democracy is without a doubt the most successful governance concept for societies during the last two centuries. It is a strong brand, even used by rulers who do not meet any democratic criterion. Representation gradually became the predominant mechanism by which the population at large, through elections, provides a body with a general authorisation to take decisions in all public domains for a certain period of time. Fragmentation of values has lead to individualisation, to uniqueness but thereby also to the impossibility of being represented in a general manner by a single actor such as a member of parliament. More fundamentally media-politics destroy the original meaning of representation.

political system democracy media coverage manipulation political representation

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Author: Dorota Rdzanek
Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 298–310
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014017
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014017.pdf

Streszczenie:

The basic function of agricultural areas is, according to the European Charter for Rural Areas, agriculture and preservation of the natural environment based on a well-functioning agricultural sector that operates in harmony with nature. The Council Regulation (EC) 1257/1999 on support for rural development from the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee was adopted in 1999. The programmes that are currently binding in the territory of Poland were developed in accordance with the EU policy expressed in the abovementioned acts and other documents concerning development of rural areas. These included: the Rural Development Programme that focused on social and environmental aspects, as well as a part of the Sectoral Operational Programme devoted to the development of rural areas, as well as restructuring and modernisation of the food sector. Based on the priorities of the Council regulation, two strategic objectives have been set: 1) Improvement of competitiveness of the agriculture and food economy, 2) Sustainable development of rural areas. Implementation of these objectives requires the support of the Common Agricultural Policy. Polish European Union membership contributed to setting its objectives and increasing the ability to subsidise economic entities, as well as develop both the food and rural areas economy.

the European Union Common Agricultural Policy Agriculture

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Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 311–330
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014018
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014018.pdf

Streszczenie:

Political significance of sport is usually bound with international rivalry and conflict. However, sport tends to have a role in fostering international dialogue and cooperation as well. The aim of the article is to present the most important examples of this role of international sport. There is a number of examples verifying the hypothesis about consensual role of sport in international politics. Despite political signifi cance, sport is not purely a part of the world of politics. This situation grants sport with an advantage in possibility of establishing international cooperation. Some actions that could seem completely impossible concerning political reality, turned out to be possible in sport. Sports contacts can pave the way for a further, political agreements. For instance a number of specific ‘sports diplomacies’ have taken place, that were used by some countries in order to enhance their capabilities of impacting the international political system.

sport and politics pacifist role of sport international cooperation and dialogue through sport

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Author: Mateusz R. Chudziak
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 331–347
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014019
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014019.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper refers to a diplomatic controversy between Brazil and the United States that took place in the late sixties of the 20th century. The reason of the dispute layed in a fact of exporting processed soluble coffee by Brazil to the USA at very competitive prices. The US processors didn’t have access to law grade coffees, which served as a raw material to fabrication of soluble powder. The US processors forced the Department of State to counteract that situation. As a result the USA government blamed Brazil of discriminatory trade practices and violating free trade. The controversy was put under the consideration of the International Coffee Organization. The proceedings coincided with the twilight of the American aid programme for Latin America called Alliance for Progress. The controversy was an instance of growing suspicions and deteriorating relations between Latin America and the USA, which changed its foreign policy in that region from supporting development of democracy in the continent toward backing up military regimes.

Coffee Latin America USA Inter-American Relations International Coffee Agreement International Coffee Organization Alliance for Progress Controversy

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Author: Natalia Gburzyńska
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 348–362
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014020
PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014020.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article refers to the contemporary situation in the Russian economy and in the Russian capital economy. Economy in Russia is based on the extraction of raw materials. However, in 2010 economic forecasts for the country were optimistic. In this period economic development was strong and the country became a member of the BRICS group. One of the issues of the Russian Federation economy was the backing of the old system. Most investments were focused on the energy sector when in the public sector the changes were smaller. To increase revenues and funds big reforms are necessary and new investments. One possibility to improve the economic situation is to focus on greater extraction of raw materials. Another option is to resign from a monocultural economy. The situation in Moscow is better than the general economic situation in the Russian Federation. GDP increased regularly. In 2008 Russia took 15th place in the ranking of the hundred largest cities GDP. Th e Moscow economy is based especially on the trade of energy resources. Moreover, profi t is gained from business activities and industry. The level of unemployment in Moscow is the lowest in comparison to all regions. In the capital city it fluctuates between 0,5% and 1%. A major problem in the capital city is the constant immigration from other part of the Federation and other foreign countries. In majority, people who come to Moscow are the job seekers. Also the signifi cant problem is ubiquitous corruption.

capital Russia Moscow raw materials trade industry unemployment corruption

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