• Dealing with a Trauma Burdened Past: between Remembering and Forgetting

    Recognition that societies will not be able to build a future as long as they do not face the ‘demons of the past’ has become a kind of universal truth over the last decades of the 20th Century (Gibney et al., 2008, p. 1). This view, though challenging and ambiguous, is reflected in the globally present attempts to improve or rebuild relations within and between different communities at the domestic and international level. The question concerning, on the one hand, the essence and most essential elements and, on the other hand, the instruments and the limitations of rebuilding relations, as well as the political implications of those processes have become the broad area of interest and the discourse leading to significantly different ideas and solutions. The article aims at presenting different approaches referring to dealing with the conflicted and traumatized past both at the domestic and international level. Some selected instruments and methods which enable movement from a divided past towards a common future are discussed namely the strategy of engagement with the past versus the strategy of avoidance of the past. The special attention is paid to the notion of reconciliation understood as a process of rebuilding of relations through the multi-dimensional transformation of former adversaries after the period of violence and repression.

  • The Role of Trauma in Romania’s Ontological Security

    This paper analyses Romania’s foreign policy during the first post-communist years, by employing a theoretical viewpoint based on ontological security and trauma. It uncovers the elite efforts to secure the post-totalitarian state’s identity and international course. Romania’s search for ontological security featured the articulation of narratives of victimhood, which were linked with its proclaimed western European identity. The Romanian identity narrative has long struggled between “the West” and “the East”, trying to cope with traumatic historical events. These discursive themes and ontological insecurities were crystallized in the controversy surrounding the Romanian-Soviet “Friendship Treaty” (1991). Key Romanian officials displayed different typical responses to cultural trauma and debated the state’s path to ontological security, which was reflected in the foreign policy positions. 


  • Velikijj Shelkovyjj put i tengrianstvo v strategijakh kulturnojj politiki sovremennogo Kazakhstana

    In the paper, the chosen aspects of Kazakhstan’s contemporary cultural policy were examined, i.e., the new shape of the Silk Road, and the concept of Tengriism. Tengriism, being and open ideological and world-view shaping system, had an enormous influence on forming, developing and functioning of the unique and fundamental principles of peace and concord, which were recognized by the people of Kazakhstan as their political, economic, and cultural guidance. The nature of Tengriism, perceived in Central Asia, and in Kazakhstan in particular, not as a religion, but as an idiosyncratic worldview, was solidified due to tolerance principles, on which the Great Silk Road, among others factors, had a great influence throughout the years. Nowadays, the current contexts of Tengriism and the Silk Road have become essential components for the process of ethnic and cultural memory regeneration in modern Kazakhstan, thus fostering the national identity consolidation. The presented research focuses on three basic aspects: the specificity of cultural and historic landscape of the Great Steppe, conditioned by the historic presence and influence of the Silk Road; the various traces of Tengriism in modern Kazakhstan; and the potential of both Tengriism and the Silk Road evidenced in the present-day cultural policy of Kazakhstan.

  • Tożsamość ukraińskiego Lwowa: jak rodził się matecznik kulturowego oporu

    The Identity of Ukrainian Lviv: how the stronghold of cultural resistance has been created. Th e aim of the essay is to present and explain the process of creation of the identity of contemporary Lviv. According to the author, in order to analyze this process, it is necessary to remember about cultural factors which can infl uence political aff airs. Th e essay includes an examination of the main cultural images composing the identity of the city, especially these believed to be attractive for the presented community, as well and these which are treated as the points of repulsion.

  • Wpływ rozwoju technologii internetowej na przestrzeń życia społecznego. Przestrzeń rzeczywista vs cyberprzestrzeń

    The impact of the development of Internet technology on the social life. Real space vs Cyberspace
    This article touches the subject of the Internet as a medium based on contrasts and reproducting oppositions. Dualisms are shown in terms of social space, communication, interpersonal relationships and identity. The two worlds are put in contrast: the real world and the virtual one, and the issues and the relations between them are pointed out. The article also describes the impact of Internet technology on communication. It types for the traditional communication and the Internet communication and points to the fundamental aspect of differentiating between them from the way the message is communicated. The paper also highlights the issue of interpersonal relations and the transformations they have undergone after the spread of the Internet. Relationships are classified as offline and online. Both types are described, and the way they are intertwined in social life. Both positive and negative characteristics of online relationships are indicated. The last issue addressed in the article is the identity gap. It is shown from the real and virtual world perspective.

  • Identity in Ecological Settings. The Theory of Multidimensional Identity

    The identity development takes place during the process of integrating the past to the presence with anticipated future. Additionally, it occurs in ecological context which concerns relations and interactions at the individual, group and institutional levels, as well as changes related to the revitalization of regional cultures, the integration of states into transnational structures or the progressive processes of globalization. In the paper, the Authors mostly pay attention to ecological determinants that influence the process of identity development, which takes place in multicultural environment. The purpose of the paper is to present a new theoretical approach – Theory of Multidimensional Identity (TMI) by Jerzy Nikitorowicz. It is based on the fact that a child is located in a diverse cultural environment under the influence of traditional multiculturalism, having existed for several generations, for example, on the borderland. During different stages of identity development (from the past to the future), three groups of dimensions have been distinguished: dimensions in the context of inherited (given, taken over) identity; dimensions in the context of individually shaped and realised identity and dimensions which are socially determined. This theoretical approach allows for the analysis of dependence and relations between the different stages and dimensions of identity development. It highlights with which stages those three dimensions form the identity system, how it changes, what are the reasons for those changes and modifications.

  • Integration and Identity – The Strategies of Young Europeans – Interpretative Tracks and Motifs

    In the article, the question is raised whether human knowledge, abilities, emotions and socialization are capable of shaping social structures according to the idea of multiculturalism (which faces a critical situation), introducing the humanistic quality to the principles of coherence and integration. With my own research results in the background (diagnostic polling and individual interviews), integration and identity are presented as strategies determined by aims, subjects (players) and profits (rewards). What has been indicated is the idea worth promoting in the field of pedagogy, in educational institutions and in whole societies, i.e., shaping the culture which re-builds the real power of group life. The postulate to shape such culture in multicultural communities is very hard to implement, but not impossible. The presented results of the studies conducted on a specific group of young Europeans – the participants of a short-term international voluntary workcamp – indicate and illustrate the development of cognitive functions, motivation and interactive activity of kindness- based character.
    The interpretative tracks and motifs for the obtained results are sought in K. Illeris’s holistic concept of learning and in other theories of various origin, not much known in the field of pedagogy: H. Simon’s concept of bounded rationality and R. Aumann’s theory of repeated games (otherwise called the theory of “conflict and cooperation” or “interactive decisions”). Applying two different approaches into the discussed issues – the theoretical and empirical, detailed and partially generalized approach – is cognitively interesting and useful in the practical dimension. This might help both to specify the stimuli which cause the evolution of human attitudes and strategies of acting and to design and organize education.

  • Creating a National Identity through Agricultural Education in Mandatory Palestine

    Formation of agricultural education in high schools was a milestone in the early 20th-century history of Zionist education, and in the Jewish society in Mandatory Palestine in general. Agricultural education was a means of changing the character of the Jewish people by imparting agricultural knowledge and training. Candidates came from agricultural settlements, but mainly – and this was its uniqueness – they also came from the towns. In addition, agricultural education provided a framework for absorbing immigrant youth. This educational framework was, among other things, ideological because those who joined it were usually motivated by a desire to change the character of the Jewish society, return to the land and work it. The cost of funding agricultural schools was high for the local Jewish community, and therefore these schools remained dependent on private initiative and philanthropy. In spite of the widespread ideological support, not many students actually took part in agricultural education due to the high cost of tuition on the one hand, and the need to help support their own families on the other. It can also be said that during this period, parents who had the means to provide their children with higher education, favoured the “Gymnasium” high school model, which could lead to them engaging in other professions.

  • Futerał, wehikuł, biokombinezon . Ciało jako (re)prezentacja tożsamości w narracjach uczestników wybranych grup religijnych

    The submitted paper focuses on the issue of corporeality, strictly spoken on the conjunction of an individual’s physical body with its bearer’s personal identity – examined within the context of the affiliation to religious groups. The attempt to find an answer to the basic issue of „Who am I” is not restricted to the nontangible realm of the human psyche, but is conditioned by the materiality of the human body as well and therewith extends into the world of physical appearances. Man’s material body is the place where the biological processes of life manifest themselves, with our sensory organs we experience the world’s physical reality. The possession of a physical body allows for religious activity. The human body turns into an object of special care and attention. Medical conditions in particular emphasize the human corporeality, especially when associated with pain experience. Similarly the consumption of psychotropic substances which provoke changes of consciousness, causes an enhanced bodyawareness. The strong correlation between personal identity and the body finds its expression in the parameter of a deeply experienced cohesive identity.

  • Wielość kultur w jednym człowieku – wartość (i) czy dylemat tożsamościowy?

    Autor traktuje kulturę jako czynnik różnicujący ludzi i grupy i w tym kontekście wskazuje na problemy tożsamościowe przyjmując, że nikt nie jest zakładnikiem odziedziczonej kultury. Na przykładzie Piotra Lachmana, poety i pisarza, przedstawia problem jednoczesnego bycia Polakiem i Niemcem, problem ustawicznego bycia na pograniczu kultur, prowadzenia wewnętrznego dialogu tożsamościowego. Odwołując się do filozofów dialogu i innych autorytetów ukazuje wartość relacji z Innym w procesie własnego rozwoju.
    Autor tekstu zwrócił uwagę na zakodowane w umysłach ludzkich dogmaty jako zagrożenie w rozwoju tożsamości oraz wskazał na zadania edukacji międzykulturowej w procesie kształtowania tożsamości ponadnarodowej, transkulturowej. Przedstawił, jak istotne obecnie, w kształtowaniu społeczeństw wielokulturowych, jest uznanie i rozumienie nowych, dynamicznych tożsamości hybrydowych.

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