The object of the article are aspects of penitentiary system of Russian Federation based on two pints of view: Polish and Russian. The aim is to highlight the essence, the content and range but also conditioning and tendencies for changes in the context of international ambitions and role of Russia but also widely knowing term like security of nation I case of penitentiary system of such country. Popularised and worked out in 2006 by European Prison Rules (Recommendations Rec (2006)2) the idea of normalisation, meaning minimalization some effects of imprisonment, will have a long way to find appropriate using in Russian penitentiary practice, which is directed mostly on giving a penalty for somebody. It is such seen both by the society and the government. The most accurate opinion is management policy of Federal Prison Service became as it were the model of country in which monopoly to rule belong to weight structures. In all, there is no humanisation of current justice, because the cult of prison is constantly observed and judicial reform transpired strongly illusory. The lack of control for penitentiary system by the social organisation is the effect of many omissions. In the source literature is appeared many opinions that in Russia the prison culture permeated to the every spheres of life.