Russian Federation

  • Russlands Energiepolitik als Teil der russischen Außenpolitik

    This publication is part of the doctoral thesis, written in German with the title: Die Energiepolitik der Russischen Föderation im Zeitraum 2000–2009 und derem Auswirkungen für die energetische Sicherheit der EU (The Russian energy Policy 2000–2009 and its impact on the European energy security). The article presents how the Russian Federation is using its energy resources to achieve their current and future foreign policy goals. The author makes an attempt to explain a numer of fundamental issues relating on the one hand to the main motives of the Russian Federation in this field and on the other to its methods. He also analyses the Russian energy strategy and its negative impact on the energy security of the European Union. As important elements of this strategy the ”Gas-OPEC” as well as the direct and indirect investments of Gazprom in EU are mentioned. It is claimed that the implementation of pipeline projects by the Russian Federation (Nord-Stream and South-Stream) isn’t carried out at the bilateral relations level randomly – Nord-Stream (Russia-Germany), South-Stream (Russia-Italy) – but rather is seen as an opportunity to strengthen Russia’s relations with selected countries. This can be seen as an attempt to make the European Union weaker as a multilateral organization.

  • Szanghajska Organizacja Współpracy jako element zarządzania regionalnego Federacji Rosyjskiej

    Since the fall of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Russian Federation has been trying to regain its importance in the global arena. One way of restoration of influence in the world is to build a multipolar order, including the establishment of regional alliances. Shanghai Cooperation Organization is one of such attempts in the region of Central Asia, and even the entire Asian continent. Therefore, drawing attention to the role of Russian Federation in the development of this structure appears to be important, especially when considering the growing significance of Central Asia as a result of the construction of the New Silk Road. Russian authorities, however, do not limit their involvement to the single structure. At the same time they are working on development of other organizations, aimed at building their influence in the world. By such actions Russian Federation is trying to minimize the significance of the People’s Republic of China, European Union and United States of America, especially in the so-called near abroad.

  • RESPECTING EUROPEAN STANDARDS CONCERNING HUMAN RIGHTS OF LGBT PEOPLE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND UKRAINE. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    The LGBT rights are lately one of the aspects of a social and political discourse both in the Russian Federation and in Ukraine. In these countries of a common historical heritage there are some analogies in the perspective on human rights and their realization. It may be also noted that the LGBT rights have become an instrument of politics. In the following article the authors present a comparative analysis of the way in which the LGBT rights are respected in the Russian Federation and in Ukraine. They will depict the similarities and differences between these two countries which result from historical conditions, and will provide an analysis of the current perception of non-heterosexual people in both countries.

  • Strategia energetyczna Federacji Rosyjskiej wobec państw Grupy Wyszehradzkiej

    Federacja Rosyjska to obecnie największy eksporter gazu ziemnego oraz ropy naftowej na europejski rynek paliw. W skład europejskiego rynku paliw wchodzą państwa zrzeszone w V4. Różnią się potencjałem energetycznym, przyjętą strategią polityki zagranicznej, w tym oceną roli i znaczenia jakie UE powinna odgrywać w ramach prowadzonej przez siebie polityki energetycznej. Elementami wspólnymi w zakresie prowadzonej przez kraje V4 polityki energetycznej pozostają uzależnienie od Federacji Rosyjskiej w zakresie importu ropy naftowej i gazu ziemnego oraz związane z tym obawy dotyczące bezpieczeństwa energetycznego. Wszystko to ma miejsce w obliczu realizowanej przez władze rosyjskiej strategii budowy „mocarstwa energetycznego”, które wykorzystując surowce energetyczne jako źródło kreacji relacji w polityce zagranicznej, wewnętrznej będzie zdolne wpływać na bieg wydarzeń na Starym Kontynencie. Publikacja Strategia energetyczna Federacji Rosyjskiej wobec państw Grupy Wyszehradzkiej ma na celu przybliżenie relacji pomiędzy Federacją Rosyjską a państwami Grupy V4 w zakresie handlu, przesyłu surowców energetycznych jak również przejmowania przez Federację Rosyjską infrastruktury poszczególnych sektorów energetycznych krajów Europy Środkowowschodniej.

  • Russian Active Measures in Psychological Warfare

    The aim of the article is to analyse Russian active measures in the context of psychological warfare. Active measures are defined as the actions of political warfare conducted by Russian secret service. In case of Russian Federation they are the core of psychological operations that are tools of realising international and domestic policy priorities. Active measures include disinformation campaigns and supporting insurgency in opponent states. Regarding the context of psychological operations active measures are designed to model the mental sphere of opponent society. Active measures are aimed at weakening the unity of the European Union as well as common trust in NATO. Creating favourable atmosphere for Russian activity is the main goal of implementing active measures. Therefore active measures are considered as a great part of Russian interpretation of psychological warfare. Although active measures can support the military activity they are designed to influence the mental sphere of opponent society and are used to create opinions and interpretations that match Russian interests. Those measures are difficult to identify and therefore are threats that are not easy to counteract.

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