trade

  • The EU-China Economic Relations: a Harmful Competition or a Strategic Cooperation?

    The People’s Republic of China currently possesses the second biggest national economy in the world, smaller only to that of the United States. It is also a matter of time for China to become the greatest economic power, at least regarding share in aggregated global GDP and the sphere of international trade. Growing engagement of China in global economic development and its dependence on other participants of trade exchanges have made this country a  more ‘responsible shareholder’ of the international economic system. China has a  great development interest in upholding a  stable world economic situation, and especially in proper economic relations with the United States and the European Union, on whose markets its healthy development largely depends. Whether China will soon become a “mature, responsible and attractive superpower” depends to a significant degree not only on its efforts but also on proper relations with major trade and investment partners around the world. It seems that mutually beneficial economic relations between the PRC and the European Union (founded on mutually beneficial and strategic cooperation and not on serious and opaque competition) constitute one of the key factors determining this scenario’s validity. Unfortunately, for the time being, many problems arise in this relationship. They come from both sides requiring a proper diagnosis, as well as a scientific analysis including both assessment and prognosis. The presented scientific article tries to meet these expectations.

  • “The Property Has Been Fiercely Divided” between the Authorities in Russia and the Capital Is a “Tasty Morsel” for the People Who Govern it – the current economic situation in Moscow

    This article refers to the contemporary situation in the Russian economy and in the Russian capital economy. Economy in Russia is based on the extraction of raw materials. However, in 2010 economic forecasts for the country were optimistic. In this period economic development was strong and the country became a member of the BRICS group. One of the issues of the Russian Federation economy was the backing of the old system. Most investments were focused on the energy sector when in the public sector the changes were smaller. To increase revenues and funds big reforms are necessary and new investments. One possibility to improve the economic situation is to focus on greater extraction of raw materials. Another option is to resign from a monocultural economy. The situation in Moscow is better than the general economic situation in the Russian Federation. GDP increased regularly. In 2008 Russia took 15th place in the ranking of the hundred largest cities GDP. Th e Moscow economy is based especially on the trade of energy resources. Moreover, profi t is gained from business activities and industry. The level of unemployment in Moscow is the lowest in comparison to all regions. In the capital city it fluctuates between 0,5% and 1%. A major problem in the capital city is the constant immigration from other part of the Federation and other foreign countries. In majority, people who come to Moscow are the job seekers. Also the signifi cant problem is ubiquitous corruption.

  • Mołdawia i Ukraina między Federacją Rosyjską i Unią Europejską Aspekt gospodarczy

    The development objective of the article is to present in the last fifteen years the level of economic relations of Moldova and Ukraine with the Russian Federation and the European Union. In connection with this study it was covered by the value of the trade of Moldova and Ukraine with the European Union and the Russian Federation, as well as the volume of the foreign direct investments EU and Russia in the Moldovan and Ukrainian economy.

  • Geoekonomia w relacjach Polski i Rosji – zarys problematyki

    Geo-economics is an approach that, in general, looks at the links between politics and economy in the international arena. This article is an analyses overview of the presence of geo-economics strategy in the Polish-Russian relations. The author focuses particularly on the problems of investment, trade and energy.

  • Polska a Republika Korei: ogniwa współpracy

    Relations of Poland with the Korean Peninsula countries are determined by liberal paradigm set on the development of economic cooperation, especially in the areas of relations with the Republic of Korea, strengthened by the development of cultural relations. South Korea is an important partner of Poland and the development of bilateral cooperation should mainly be concentrated in the areas of modern technologies, environment protection and power industry. Polish foreign policy is oriented on winning direct foreign investments, access to up-todate technologies and winning trade areas for Polish products, mainly from agricultural sector.

  • Stosunki handlowe i inwestycyjne Polski z Armenią po 2004 roku

    The paper explores the development of trade and investment relations between Poland and Armenia in conditions of EU membership and in the first year of Armenia presence within the Eurasian Economic Union. The aim of the study is to determine the changes in the size and structure of trade and foreign investment both partners, as well as the identification of key factors influencing the evolution of the Polish-Armenian cooperation in this regard. Armenia both economically and politically is the relatively minor significant Poland’s partner. In the analyzed period, one can observe an increase in bilateral trade, but the growth of value and dynamics of Polish exports was more stable than imports. Small foreign investment, both Polish in Armenia and Armenian in Poland, is the area with untapped potential of bilateral cooperation. Poland’s membership in the EU was one of the factors that positively influenced on the intensification of bilateral trade and investment relations. In turn, Armenia’s entry to Eurasian Economic Union leads to the prediction that it will be a determinant which would have negative impact on Polish-Armenian cooperation in the long-term. There are a serious risk that the new agreement between the EU and Armenia will not be able to significantly reduce the impact of that factor.

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