Author: Roger T. Ames
Institution: Beijing University
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202001
PDF: ap/23/ap2301.pdf

Streszczenie:

The items available for ars contextualis can be characterized in terms of the focal point from and to which the lines of divergence and convergence attributable to them move and find resolution, and the field from which and to which those same lines proceed and have influence. To take Confucius himself as a concrete example, we would have to allow that he is corporate in the sense that the lines of divergence and convergence that constitute his focus and meaning move throughout the entire field of the Chinese cultural tradition. Confucius is both focus and China as a focused field.

 

abduction Daoism Chinese cosmology Chinese philosophy

Author: Krzysztof Gawlikowski
Institution: SWPS University
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202002
PDF: ap/23/ap2302.pdf

Streszczenie:

The study presents one of the fundamental differences between Western and Confucian civilisations: individualistic western interpretation of self versus Confucian group-self (we-self) and group identity. The study starts with Hong Kong scholars’ opinions: which western concepts are entirely alien to Chinese tradition. According to them, an individual is not treated there as the highest value nor has attributed ‘innate dignity’, as in the West. Equality is rejected, because all social relations are based there on a hierarchical order. The concepts and ideals of individual autonomy, of self-direction, freedoms and rights had also been unknown there, like many other western concepts, since they have Christian and Greek-Roman roots. The study presents various explanations and concepts of ‘Confucian self’ (Chinese, Japanese and Korean), among them ‘group self’, ‘contextual self’, ‘enlarged’ and primitive ‘small self’, ‘multiple self’, etc. The author presents in detail Roger T. Ames’ concept of Confucian self as ‘focus-in-the-field’ indicating that it explains well the different social position of individuals, which could vary from ‘small’ and insignificant to ‘gigantic’. The study outlines as well the religious Chinese context of such concepts, the education process and the essential concepts of how children have to be educated in the Confucian tradition. These realities change, of course, but slowly and merely partially, since the traditional concepts still serve well social needs and efficient modernization. In the end, the author indicates a broader cultural context in which such concepts of self could operate.

 

individualism Confucian civilisation Western civilisation group identity

Author: Marek Tylkowski
Institution: SWPS University
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202003
PDF: ap/23/ap2303.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article is concerned with the relations between the Catholic Church and the government of the People’s Republic of China. It starts with a short summary of the history of Christianity in China. Then it focuses on the analysis of changes of policies toward China on the part of the Holy See and their reception from Chinese authorities. It points out that the Vatican government consequently is making efforts in order to normalize the situation of Catholics in China and that it is ready to for a deep compromise with the Chinese government if necessary. In that context, the agreement between the Holy See and the Chinese government, which was prolonged on the 22nd of October 2020, is more understandable.

 

Catholicism in China Catholics in China China-Vatican agreement catholic church China

Author: Joanna Afek
Institution: John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202004
PDF: ap/23/ap2304.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article discusses the problems of early childhood education in China. The first part describes the history of kindergartens in China, as well as the current situation. The second part deals with the problems of early childhood education. These problems mainly concern the entire system and staff.

 

system of early childhood education Reforms of the education system in the PRC

Author: Agnieszka Łobacz
Institution: retired diplomat, expert on China
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202005
PDF: ap/23/ap2305.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper examines the official reception of Dr Sun Yat-sen to whose programme the Chinese communist authorities turned in search of ideological foundations for the new policy of ‘reforms and opening’ promulgated after the end of the so-called cultural revolution.
The analysis, based on speeches of leaders at gatherings commemorating anniversaries of Sun’s birth and outbreak of 1911 Revolution, finds that the ideas of Sun - addressed as great national hero, great patriot, great fore-runner of revolution – helped to mobilise people to carry out current national tasks with the great renaissance of the Chinese nation as the most important. The speeches exhort to follow Sun’s indomitable will of a great revolutionary in order to work hard towards this noble goal, which he envisaged as ‘rejuvenation of China’ as early as 1894. Sun Yat-sen’s ability and readiness to correct and refine his ideas which led him to accept of Marxism (with no further elaboration as to the extent of this acceptance) and to co-operate with the Chinese Communist Party was emphasised the most by the speakers. CPC is portrayed as the truest and steady heir of Sun Yat-sen’s programme, the heir who finalized his struggle for establishing China as a genuinely independent state granting social justice to its nation. Strongly emphasized is the topic of unification of China – meaning the unification with Taiwan – prominently quoted as one of Sun’s ultimate goals.

 

Chinese policy of reform and opening-up PRC leaders’ approach to Sun Yat-sen’ legacy Three Principles of the People national ideas of Sun Yat-sen Xinhai Revolution

Author: Beata Bochorodycz
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202006
PDF: ap/23/ap2306.pdf

Streszczenie:

Japan’s neighborhood associations (NHA) have been the subject of polemics for years. These disputes concern both their autonomy in relation to public administration and voluntary membership, and thus their civic nature, as well as the period and genesis of the formation. This article analyzes the debate on the subject, tracing the transformation and metamorphosis of neighborhood associations from the perspective of historical institutionalism. The article consists of four parts, the first one briefly discusses the concepts of historical institutionalism as well as the main assumptions and definitions adopted in this article, the second presents the profile of contemporary neighborhood associations in terms of structure, financing, and activities; the third sketches a historical development, and the fourth examines the factors for the rebirth of associations after the end of the war in Asia and the Pacific in 1945. The main argument of the article is twofold. First, the constitutive principles of neighborhood associations changed under the influence of the dominant political regime, and in the post-war transformation process the change has been occurring gradually and incrementally, primarily under the influence of generational change and other systemic and environmental factors; secondly, neighborhood associations developed after the war as a result of path dependence and the effect of self-reinforcement, i.e. the positive experiences of residents with the functioning of these organizations in previous periods as a tool to solve community problems and meet specific needs.

 

Japanese politics after 1945 neighborhood associations Japanese society

Author: Krzysztof Szumski
Institution: retired diplomat, expert on Thailand
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202007
PDF: ap/23/ap2307.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Philippines started to be known in Europe when Ferdinand Magellan set foot on Samar island in March 1521. In the end of the 19th century in the Philippines emerged a powerful movement of local nationalists known as Katipunan. In 1896, an insurrection started against the Spanish colonial rule. Meanwhile, the Philippines were drawn into the conflict between Spain and the USA. Spanish troops were crushed by allied American and Filipino forces. The Treaty of Paris in 1898 ended the war, the Philippines became an American colony. In July 1946 the USA recognized the independence of the Philippines. The new state was completely dependent on former colonial power and the USA had military bases at Clark and Subic Bay. With the fall of dictator Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, the policy of the Philippines became more independent and in 1992 the American bases were closed down. Unfortunately for the Philippines, in another important country in the region started gathering strenght – a New China. The contacts started ages ago and many Filipinos were closely related to Chinese people, but at that time New China became very powerful economically, politically and militarily. The two countries came interests collided on the South China Sea. The Philippines started to search again for support from their former colonial patron and world superpower - the USA. Finally when the political and military cooperation with the USA again increased, in the Philippines arrived the constitutional time – limit for presidential election. Nobody foresaw the result and consequences of that election in May 2016.

 

international relation in Southeast Asia History of Philippines

Author: Adam Fforde
Institution: Victoria University, Melbourne
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202008
PDF: ap/23/ap2308.pdf

Streszczenie:

The book ‘The winning side’, by Huy Duc, is revealing in two ways. First, it presents an account of how the historically crucial episode of the 1968 Tet offensive was, as an event seen as caused by decisions in Hanoi (clearly, these are proximate causes, as the historical context is far greater in scope), ‘decided upon’. Second, in that Huy Duc’s account tells us much about his views of how these decisions were taken, and their political milieu, it tells us how he presents his own views and thinking about that milieu.

 

Vetnam War Vo Nguyen Giap Ho Chi Minh

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