MYTHS AND CONTEMPORARY TIBET. SOME SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ISSUES
After many years of partisan exchange of arguments over the condition of Tibetan polity and society a more balanced examination should be introduced for the convenience of an advanced understanding. The Western view has been too often burdened by an Orientalist sentiment in Edward Said’s term, that is of romantic patronage against a despotic domination. There have been indeed too many cases of extreme violation of human rights there, both individual and collective, but the situation is changing and calls for an adjusted estimation. The subject of Tibet sovereignty is discussed from the Eastern and Western points of view that appear contradictory and inconclusive. Historical evidence proves similarity with the position of Outer Mongolia but the present status of Tibet originates in the Western notion of protectorate as acknowledged in the early 20th century. In consequence, the take-over of 1950 is not considered in terms of an aggression in legal aspect and in execution. The concept of aggression seems more applicable to the events of 1958-59 when agreements on self-government had been cancelled. The consecutive years were a continuous offence against cultural, social and civil rights of an ethnic people within the Chinese state. Starting with the 80s, however, those rights become to be gradually restored to the point that most accusations by the Dharmasala executive turn false or inapplicable to a developing and modernising country. Such are the cases of demographic Hanisation by an influx of the Chinese, of population control or of exploitation of agricultural and pastoral resources to the avail of the Chinese, etc. In fact, there remain some limitations in religious freedom, in education, mostly higher, or in the ethnic parity of the administrative staff both in numbers and responsibility. Nevertheless, they are progressively reduced to the point that the life in Tibet gets close to normal. At the same time there remains a mutual mistrust that has to be dissolved principally by the Chinese themselves in order to reach practical interaction and the participation of the Tibetans in their affairs.
- J. Ackerly, From Hu Yaobang to Hu Jintao. The persecution of Tibetan Buddhism in the 1980s, “Tibetan Review”, 1991 nr 3, s. 8–15.
- J. Avedon, In exile from the Land of snows, Wisdom Publ., London1985.
- China imposed collective punishment on all Tibet, “Tibetan Review”, 1996 nr 11, s. 19–22.
- K. Conboy, J. Morrison, The CIA’s secret war in Tibet, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence 2002.
- Dawa Norbu, China’s dialogue with the Dalai Lama 1978–90: Prenegotiation stage or dead end?, Pacific Affairs, 1991 nr 3, s. 351–372.
- Dawa Norbu, China’s Tibet policy, Curzon Press, Richmond 2001.
- J. K. Fairbank, Historia Chin. Nowe spojrzenie, Marabut, Gdańsk 1996.
- K. Gawlikowski, Problem praw człowieka z perspektywy azjatyckiej, „Azja-Pacyfik”, 1998 (t.1), s. 9–52.
- P. Hessler, Tibet through Chinese eyes, “The Atlantic Monthly”, 1999 nr 2, s. 56–66; w internecie: http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/99feb/tibet.htm
- R. Hoggart, Are museums political? “Society”, 2004 nr 5, s. 65–71.
- M. Kalmus, Tybet. Legenda i rzeczywistość, Wydawnictwo Baran i Suszczyński, Kraków 1999.
- J. K. Knaus, Ofiary zimnej wojny, Warszawa 2000, Amber.
- Li Songyi, Facts refuting. The Dalai’s charges, “Beijing Review”, March 1997, w internecie: http://dawning.iist.unu.edu/china/bjreview/97Mar/97–9–9.
- Ma Rong, rozdział “Tybet” w: Zhongguo shaoshu minzu, renkou diaocha yanjiu (Mniejszości Chin, studia i wyniki badań), red. Zhang Tianlu i Huang Rongqing, Beijing 1996, s. 34–68. Por. strona internetowa: www.usembasy- china.org.cn/sandt/chimin.htm
- C. Mackerras, China’s minorities. Integration and modernization in the twentieth century, Oxford University Press, New York 1994.
- Ch. Mullin, Tibetan conspiracy, “Far Eastern Economic Review”, 1975 nr 36, s. 30–34.
- J. S. Olson, An ethnohistorical dictionary of China, Greenwood Press, Westport 1998.
- W. Rodziński, Historia Chin, Ossolineum (2 wyd.), Wrocław 1992.
- S. Szynkiewicz, Nie wstydźmy się relatywizmu, “Azja-Pacyfik” 1999 (t.2), s. 169–179.
- Tibet statistical yearbook 2003, China Statistical Press, Beijing 2003.
- K. Tomala, Chiny a prawa człowieka, “Azja-Pacyfik” 1998 (t.1), s. 53–65.
- Tsering Shakya, The dragon in the Land of snows. A history of modern Tibet, Random House London 1999.
- Tybet. Fakty mówią za siebie, b.m.w.: Mandala, b.r.w., tłum. publikacji Ośrodka Informacji Rządu Tybetu na wygnaniu (publikacja oryginalna z 1993 r. w Dharmasali).
- Xin Jiguang, Minority peoples of China, Huayuancun, Beijing 1987.