- Year of publication: 2013
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-6
- DOI Address: -
Poland’s Foreign Policy towards Asia and Pacific after the Turning Point of the Year 1989
Relations between Poland and Asia/Pacific have undergone a substantial change in the last two decades. Following deep political transformations in the years 1989–1993, Poland started a new chapter in its foreign policy. However, attention of its political elite was focused both on European affairs and Poland’s neighbouring countries, especially on the complicated relations with Germany and on the dramatic struggle for withdrawal of the Soviet, and, subsequently, Russian military forces from the Polish territory. Despite all the above mentioned difficult tasks Polish diplomacy had to face at the time, they also successfully developed and advanced relations with the Asia/Pacific region making the most of Poland’s recently regained independence from the communist camp. In the following years, the policy of Poland towards the Asia/Pacific region was overshadowed and strongly linked to (and influenced by) historical challenges, such as becoming the member of both the NATO and the European Union. In this period, the character and intensity of Polish relations with the Asia/ Pacific region have also depended on the major events in the world’s recent history, such as the accession of China to the WTO, two Iraqi wars, and, more recently, American ‘pivot’ to Asia. Finally, the author arrives at conclusions concerning the policy towards Asia/Pacific and presents recommendations for more efficient initiatives and stronger links with the region.
Polish Transformation in Chinese Public Discourse
The article attempts to analyse basic understanding of post-1989 political transformation in Poland through the eyes of Chinese diplomats, policymakers, scholars, and journalists. For deeper understanding of Chinese perspective in perceiving Poland, the author applies the discourse analysis that is mainly based on quantitative analysis of articles published in Chinese magazines, such as Nanfang Chuang, and academic journals published by Chinese universities and think-tanks, such as Russian Studies, Syberian Studies, and Problems of Contemporary Socialism. In the first part of the article, the author introduces the major institution that referred to Polish problems in China. The second issue discussed are the key assumptions of 1980s in Poland: the picture presented is based mainly on the book published by Wang Yizhou and Su Shaozhi, in which these issues were described. In the last part, the author focuses on Polish political and administrative bodies, such as the Supreme Chamber of Control and Polish foreign policy, as analysed by the Chinese. In the final conclusion, the author argues that the Chinese use the pragmatic approach, and hope to learn from the Polish transformation in order to secure and maintain the next stage of Chinese reforms.
The Image of China in Stanislaw Patek’s Diplomatic Reports of the 1920’s
Stanisław Patek (1866–1944) was a diplomat, politician, and lawyer. In the years 1921–1926, he was the Polish envoy to Tokyo, Japan, and, up to 1924, the envoy to Peking, China. Patek’s analysis of the economic and political situation in the Far East in the 1920s was extremely colourful and accurate. He presented the whole chain of international events that determined the situation in the region, rivalries between the great powers, and their consequences for the world’s policymakers. The ongoing processes and phenomena in this region were of special importance both for the Second World War, with its impact on the international system in the second half of the 20th century, and for the present situation. China, divided and then united, competing and fighting with Japan, gathered all the threads of the politics of the great powers, such as Soviet Russia and the United States. China was becoming an integral part of world’s politics, although not to such a great degree as at present.
The Outline of Problems in Cooperation between Poland and China on the Example of Inner Mongolia
The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is one of the fastest developing parts of the PRC. Its growth is mainly based on natural resources, which create opportunities for investors in various industries such as mining, food, clothing, and tourism. At the same time, the region is completely unknown in Poland. Many problems typical of Polish- Chinese business relations occurred on the occasion of a meeting between Polish and IMAR businessmen. In this situation, the main issue seems to be the superficial knowledge of each other and the lack of mutual understanding.
Found in Translation. Polish Literature and Its Translation in East Asia
The article is an analysis of the presence of Polish literature in Asian countries, namely China, Japan, Vietnam and South Korea, as well as a presentation of Asian translators of Polish literature. The Book Institute is one of the most important cultural institutions whose aim is to promote Polish literature abroad. Every year, the Book Institute awards a translator who has had the greatest contribution in the field of translation of Polish novels or poems. Last year, the person recognized for her work was a Chinese translator, Yi Lijun. Polish literature is becoming more and more popular in Asia; however, it has not gained extreme popularity, yet. The greatest number of Asian translators come from China and Vietnam, the two countries bound with Poland with historical ties in the time of communism, when vivid students’ exchange programmes existed between Poland (and other partner countries) and the countries of the region. The factor in favour of making Polish literature more popular in Asia is the establishment of Polish Languages Departments at the universities of Beijing, Seoul, and Tokyo. The most distinguished translators of Polish literature include: Yuan Hanrong, Wu Lan, Zhang Zhenhui, Lin Hongliang from China; Mitsuyoshi Numano, Tokimasa Sekiguchi, Hikaru Ogara from Japan; Nguyen Van Thai, Nguyen Thi Thanh from Vietnam; and Lee Jiwone and Estera Choj from South Korea.
The Presence of the Adam Mickiewicz Institute in Asia
The article gives an account of the process of building Polish cultural presence in Asia by the Adam Mickiewicz Institute, a Polish national institution subordinate to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland. The author summarizes activities and tasks completed by the Institute in Asia up to now within the scope of the specially dedicated Project Asia, as well as provides information on the structure, resources, and strategy of the Project. Different approaches to the issue of promoting Polish culture abroad are described in relation to the Institute’s past and present experiences, especially bigger projects, such as EXPO 2010 in Shanghai or the Cultural Programme of the Polish EU Presidency in 2011. Specific examples of the Institute’s co-operation with Asian partners are invoked to illustrate the ways in which local organizations, communities, and individuals can be engaged in the process of building better awareness and understanding of Polish culture in the region.
Translations of Chinese Writing into Polish as Perceived from the Historical Perspective and in the Translation Theory Approach
The main aim of this article is to present the translations of the most important pieces of Chinese writing into Polish language in the historical perspective, as well as to show that in the process of translation of any Chinese literary work not only the knowledge of the language but also of the culture is essential. Moreover, the author emphasizes the necessity of updating the already existing translations according to the increasing knowledge of Chinese literature and culture. In the main part of the article, three comparisons of different translations of the same texts (Su Tong’s Wives and Concubines, The Analects and Zhuangzi) have been made. The first comparison shows how the lack of Sinological knowledge results in mistakes made in the process of translation. The other two prove the importance of updating the already existing translations.
Chinese Translations of Polish Literature
Chinese translations of Polish literature have a history of more than a hundred years. The first person who introduced Polish literature to Chinese people is the famous writer Lu Xun. He not only made it easier for the Chinese to read and understand Middle-Eastern literature, but he also encouraged other writers to translate and promote Polish literature in China. After 1949, the first batch of Chinese overseas students arrived in Poland, sponsored by the government of the newly founded People’s Republic of China. They have become the main translation and promotion force for Polish literature up to now. In the 21st century, young scholars at Polish Studies departments in China try to undertake more tasks. In chronological order, this article observes and discusses both the history of Chinese translations of Polish literature as well as its features.
Polish-Korean Relations in the Fields of Science, Culture, and Literature
The aim of the article is to shed light on the Polish-Korean relations in education, culture and literature as presented in the historical approach. Up to the year 1950, these contacts were rare. Two researchers of the Far East: Jan Kalinowski and Wacław Sieroszewski were probably the first Poles who explored Korea. Their publications familiarized Polish readers with the country they knew so little of. Next, the historical background of the relations between Poland and North Korea as well as South Korea is outlined. A limited scientific and cultural exchange between Poland and North Korea lasted until 1989. After the establishment of diplomatic and economic relations between Poland and the Republic of Korea, the mutual contacts in the fields of education, culture and literature gained an impetus, and started to give tangible results. Finally, the author points out that, thanks to the effective economic and cultural policy of the two countries, institutional and interpersonal relations in the fields of education, culture, and literature have never been as close as they are today.
From the History of Mongolian Studies in Poland
The focus of interest in this article is the history of Polish interests in the Mongolian studies. Describing the development of these interests, the author underlines historical circumstances: when the Polish and the Mongolian people were brought closer by different factors (for example in the 13th or 19th-20th centuries) these interests were increasing and resulted in valuable works; at other times, they decreased. However, they have never ceased to exist: in the 18th century the Polish did not bring any contribution to Mongolian studies; nevertheless, judging by the amount of space devoted to the Mongols in Polish encyclopaedias of the time, the subject was still interesting for many. The author regards Benedict from Wrocław and an anonymous person known as C. de Bridia as the first Polish Mongolists. They both went to Mongolia (1245–1247) assisting the pope’s envoy, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, and, just like him, they gathered a substantial number of information. Among the writers of the Renaissance he mentions, most importantly, Maciej of Miechów (1457–1523), known as the “discoverer” of peoples and states which appeared on political scene after the fragmentation of the Mongolian Empire. The author speaks little of the works of later compilers, and proceeds to describe the accomplishments of Józef Kowalewski (1801–1878) and Władysław Kotwicz (1872–1944). Writing both about these eminent Polish scholars of Mongolian Studies and about their successors, he pays special attention to characteristics of times in which they had to live.
Gratulacje dla wybitnych chińskich tłumaczy polskiej literatury pięknej z okazji 80-lecia urodzin
Profesor Bjambyn Rinczen
Wspomnienie o doktor Halinie Ogarek-Czoj (1931–2004)
Ważniejsze spotkania polityków Polski oraz krajów Azji i Pacyfiku (listopad 2012 – wrzesień 2013)
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