- Year of publication: 2015
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-8
- DOI Address: -
The present article concerns the issue of transferring practices typical for the Internet hypertext onto the ground of TV media. Evolution of TV transfer is characterized by increasing tendency to “downlink” other places in the info-sphere, placing references to numerous previews, pointing out other sources. All this contributes to the fact that TV may be perceived as next - apart from the Internet - medium of network nature. A substantial part in this process is played by the celebrities, who constitute a kind of core, around which all remaining elements of medial network are arranged. However, the process of “networking” TV is far more than purely marketing strategy of creating the most attractive message possible. It constitutes the reflection of the way human brain works, which prefers the analysis of cut and separated, out-of-context messages to longer and more subtle ones.
Metaphors are vital for medical practice and experience of illness. They enable negotiation of shared semantic space between physician’s and patient’s thought and language. For patients metaphors brighten difficult and abstract medical terminology regarding diagnosis, course of illness and therapy. They help attach shared meanings to body, health and illness. Metaphors also enable construction of the idea of what illness actually is, and thus they help in dealing with illness’ experience. It is due to the fact that metaphors enable expression of thoughts and feeling that are difficult to articulate: pain, suffering and fear of death. On the other hand, making use of metaphors may lead to misunderstanding and misinterpretation of reality. They may be a source of confusion, stereotypes and social exclusion. All in all, medical education should stress that medicine is not only a technē but also an art of interpretation in which metaphors are of key importance. Thus, this paper aims to describe main metaphors present in medical discourse: military metaphor, detective, terror, mechanic, (bio) informative, (bio)chemist, puzzle and riddle, economic, sport, ecologic, automobile, journey and dirt. I also describe some of metaphors present in genetic discourse: DNA as a text, code, information just as sacral and cartographic metaphors. My main thesis suggests, in opposition to Susan Sontag, that metaphors are vital to our understanding of illness and are essential for doctor - patient communication.
The objective of this paper was to analyze the socio-cultural and personal reasons pivotal to the openness of the conflicting parties to a dialogue in the framework of family mediation. In the quest to answer the question what factors can influence the development of the family mediation in Poland and its acceptance both by the society and the families in conflict, the author presented the results of international and Polish research on the efficacy of the family mediation process and the readiness of the parties to use the mediation in family conflicts. Two theoretical concepts characterizing the socio-cultural origins of resistance to mediation were analyzed in detail, namely that of the social resistance proposed by B. Mayer and that of the moral resistance by R. Benjamin. Moreover, the paper addressed the issue of the promotion of mediation together with the unrealistic expectations as to what can be achieved through mediation, mythologization of mediation and dilemma connected with the neutrality of the mediator. Finally, an integrated systemic approach to family mediation was proposed, which could enhance the chances of acceptance of the mediation by the parties in conflict. In essence it is proposed that the promotion of mediation should be exercised on three levels: (1) general societal level (to promote the winwin solutions in family conflicts), (2) level of specific educational activities for the conflicted parties (e.g. organization of pre-mediation consultative meetings), and (3) level of specific actions targeted at various professional groups (e.g. judges, lawyers, probation officer, employees of the family support centres, etc).
This article provides an analysis of the category of spirituality found in the texts of classical pedagogues such as: J.J. Rousseau, J.H. Pestalozzi and J.F. Herbart. Spirituality appears in these texts in the sense of morality and its varieties such as the heart, the inner life, but also the mental horizon. This way of understanding spirituality traditionally has belonged to religious context and is particularly visible in herbartian pedagogy. In the texts of Rousseau and Pestalozzi there is a belief that institutionalized religion called to be representative of morality is not fulfilling its role properly. Therefore, they establish the higher instance of religion - noninstitutional, personal, internal, involving an independent search for meaning in life. What attracts particular attention is the fact that despite the high rank given to the thread of morality/spirituality by presented here authors, this issue remains the “fuzzy” concept and lacks of detailed indications as to the ways of its implementation. This ambiguity, which operates poetic language and the lack of specific references of a practical nature, seems to be one of the causes acting on behalf of the exclusion of spirituality from the educational impact. This analysis is the first stage of the theoretical description of spirituality, which in the field of pedagogy is very fragmented, ambiguous, and thus difficult to undergo pedagogical reflection. It is also a step towards “disenchantment” of the analyzed category, by which I mean the process of rational and critical overview of spirituality; this in turn paves the way for realizing the sense that I find in making the category of spirituality useful for pedagogy: undergoing reflection and being translated into educational practice.
Apart from methodology of science, Francis Bacon is usually associated with secularism. According to secular interpretations, Bacon’s major purpose was to substitute a political concept of hope for a Christian one by formulating an infallible researching method and depicting a political utopia based on scientific and technological achievements. Recently, however, scholars increasingly read Bacon’s works in the context of 16th and 17th century religious discourse. By evoking this new interpretational attitude, the article derives Bacon’s scientific ideas and the utopia from millenarian hopes. Millenarism is an eschatological doctrine according to which the salvation foretold in the Scriptures will have also an earthly, temporal dimension. Bacon interprets the Bible and historical events in order to prove that at the beginning of 17th century the prophecy included in the Book of Daniel and concerning the Kingdom of God on earth came into being. According to Bacon, there were four sings indicating the realisation of the prophecy: the reformation, geographical discoveries, the development of arts, and emerging of the British Empire.
An important objective of this article is to enrich the heritage of Polish education regarding knowledge of traditional purposes of education, especially the Taoist one. In addition, the author resolves the problem related to the occurrence of the main antinomy between Western pedagogy, which is individualistic and collectivist approaches in education, also visible in the Far East model of education. Main goal of this article is to enable a better understanding of the ideas and ideals of education contained in the Far Eastern philosophical and religious systems. The author is also looking for relationships and common education values in consideration currents Taoism and western directions pedagogy, in order to create a basis for dialogue and common understanding. By referring to the hermeneutic reconstruction and comparative studies, author represents the ideals of education in the mainstream of philosophical Taoism, as a true man - zhenren and related categories: dao, de, wuwei, pu and ziran. He analyzed the work assigned to Laozi, Zhuangzi, Liezi and other Taoists. The author also presents the ideals of mainstream education in the form of religious Taoism changsheng busi - physical immortality and neidan purposes, as well as Taoist principles of moral conduct. He takes into consideration the contribution of Li Shaojun, Wang Chunyang, Zhang Boduan and religious schools of Taoism. From the author’s research you can find out that the ideals of education Taoist both analyzed trends are often very similar, moreover - identical with the ideals of education in Mahayana Buddhism and have a lot in common with Western pedagogical directions. These are compounds with naturalism pedagogical, cultural pedagogy, psychology and pedagogy humanist Carl R. Rogers and other trends of humanistic education like Gestalt pedagogy, in addition to personalistic pedagogy and existential pedagogy, ecological pedagogy and many others. Author’s interpretation of Taoist ideals departs from previous positions, in which Taoism was rejecting the importance of the role of society in human development.
Purpose of his article is to present to the reader the phenomenon of submitting somebody else’s MA thesis as one’s own. Based on author’s studies (experiment, in-depth interviews and content analysis) the most important characteristics of this “business” are described: terms of transactions, buyers and sellers characteristics, prices, seasonal, types of thesis and so on. In the second part of this article is presented the interpretation of the phenomenon contexted to Robert Merton’s functional theory. The theory helps to present selling and buying thesis as an innovative strategy in educational system, but at the same time dysfunctional. Not only a microsociological point of view is presented but also a broader context is described: anomy phenomena in Polish society.
In context of current psychological and pedagogical works, pupils/students are treated as active „players” who are able to deal with unfavorable educational environment effectively. In response to that, they experience in schools or universities every day, they use different strategies of coping with formal and informal requirements. These strategies are one of the dimensions of the so-called hidden curriculum. The purpose of this article is - on the basis of the content’s analysis of the UJ pedagogy student essays - to reconstruct the students strategies of coping in university and its determinants. Studying at the university students gain an informal knowledge that pedagogy is a low social status field of studying, is not particularly forwardlooking, the education they obtain is incomplete. To increase their chances at the labor market, they are taking part in various forms of training, also outside of the university. This spontaneous activity gives them worldly wisdom, sense of agency, personal growth, developing self-confidence and a better future. The attractiveness of the so-called patchwork education weakens their interest in official knowledge and formal education. Students learn many negative coping strategies at the university. Their primary goal is to gain profits - graduation - while minimizing their time and commitment. Strategies used by them survival and „working an angle” are examples of violations of the law, teach instrumental approach to: knowledge, teachers or peers. The results of the research showed that these strategies have demoralizing effect on other students, reducing their motivation and academic ambitions. A number of the strategies referred to in the paper disclose different dimensions of bogus student life and undermine various myths concerning the centuries-old mission of the university.
This paper highlights the main issues concerned with competences necessary for the documentary film reception. The main purpose of this article is to investigate pedagogy students’ (specialization: social-cultural animation) understanding of documentary films on the basis of their narration and to define the basic competences in film understanding. According to the thesis, competences for proper film reception require general knowledge which enables individuals to make choices, understanding conventions, contexts and interdependences. Research focuses on the reception of Polish documentary films created before the political changes in 1989. The analysis of results and final conclusions are based on Umberto Eco’s and Francesco Casetti’s theoretical concept of the text assumptions. The study has confirmed assumptions presented above and justified the following conclusion: documentary film is a text based on the specific competence of the spectator but also contributes to the formation of certain competence. The film text makes the spectator capable of actualizing the various meaning-contents and the role of the spectator is to update his knowledge while receiving documentary film. The textual cooperation gives the spectator an essential role in the process of creating meaning.
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