Author: Oksana Tarapon
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 9-25
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201601
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201601.pdf

Abstract:

Values in Ukraine in the Formation of a Totalitarian Mentality in the 1920s and 1930s. Mental origins of Soviet totalitarianism were formed after the brutal military conflict during the establishment of the Soviet regime in Ukraine. Protracted military confrontation of several military and political forces exposed civilians to violence and lawlessness. Mass sufferring devalued a human life and intensified social disappointment. Physical and psychological injuries affected daily life and values of the society. The values of survival and self-preservation became dominant under conditions of permanent violence against society. The main characteristic of the totalitarian mentality was the fear, which consolidated the position of non-interference and passivity. During the 1920s and 1930s it facilitated Soviet authorities to use violence against some classes and groups of the society (requisition of bourgeoisie property, abuse of intellectuals, clergy, etc.). Sharp inversion of values, philosophical and moral foundations of the nation, multiplied by the forcible practices of the Soviet policy, resulted in the erosion of values, distorted traditional behavioral patterns of the society and caused deep injuries of mass consciousness.

Author: Olesja Rozovik
Year of publication: 2016
Pages: 26-43
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201602
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201602.pdf

Abstract:

The influence of the resettlement movement in the Ukrainian SSR on the ethnic composition of the south region population of the republic in the beginning of 1920th–1930th. Th e article outlines the causes of agrarian overpopulation in the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic and government’s measures for the relocation of minorities into southern regions (Odessa, Kherson, Mykolaiv, KryvyiRih, Katerinoslavsk, Zaporozhye, Mariupol districts). Also lands were granted for Dutch, Belarusians, Swedes, Armenians, Czechs, Georgians and representatives of other nationalities. But this data is not conclusive because in addition to the officially planned there were unauthorized resettlements. Their numbers reached tens of thousands of people.

Tags: ollective farms resettlement commission resettlement landless peasants ethnic minorities

Author: Natalіja Kovalova
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 44-54
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201603
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201603.pdf

Abstract:

The Peasant Question in Policy of RCP(b) – CP(b)U in 1918 – 1923: Sources of Totalitarianism. The article analyses attitude of Bolshevik congresses of RCP(b) and CP(b)U to agricultural question in 1918 – 1923. It marks out the main features of Bolshevik policy as for peasantry that caused forming of totalitarian regime: ignoring of the entire social class interests, absence of scientific explanation and party discussion of the ways as for solving agricultural question, declarative character of Bolshevik policy especially in Ukraine. RCP(b) did not develop their own program of solving peasant question when rising to power in 1917. RCP(b) could determine its position only at the beginning of 1919 and in 1923. Ukrainian Bolsheviks stayed between the necessity to implement principles of proletarian internationalism and the reaction of merely Ukrainian environment to it. The peculiarity of CP(b)U activity was in earlier appeal to peasant question in 1918, but Ukrainian Bolsheviks underestimated the potential of peasants movement. Alexander Shumskyi, Yakov Yakovlev, Volodymir Zatonskyi and Andrey Bubnov supported Ukrainian peculiarities in agricultural question.

Tags: totalitarian regime Ukrainian Bolshevik peasant question CP(b)U RCP(b)

Author: Marіja Kazmirchuk
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 55-72
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201604
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201604.pdf

Abstract:

Lecturers of Kiev State University in the period of Stalinist repression (1933 – 1941). Restoring classic university system aft er series of experiments of Soviet authority over the education system contributed to the revival of the Kiev State University. However, further Stalin’s repressions aggravated the situation of teachers and students and the science in general. Th e consequence of political repression and persecution of the teachers of the Kiev State University was the fall of the level of teaching. Biographies of individual faculty members in the period from 1933 to 1941 are proof of cruel repressive policies of the totalitarian Soviet state.

Tags: Kiev State University lecturers Stalinist repression Soviet period

Author: Rostislav Konta
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 75-89
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201605
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201605.pdf

Abstract:

The transformation of the scientists views of 20th century on ethnological studies of Ivan Franko. An article deals with a problem of study of scientists of XX century ethnological scientific heritage of I. Franko by analyzing historiographical and bibliographical works concerning the problem.

Author: Oleksandr Zhitkov
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 90-106
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201606
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201606.pdf

Abstract:

„The revolutionary worker-peasant alliance” in Ukrainian marxist historiography of the 1920 – 1930-ies. Th e author of this article has studied the original material, revealing the opportunity of totalitarian period historiographical sources decontruction. Th e formation of the Soviet discourse of the historical and chronological matrix (scheme), so called „Lenin’s concept of the working class and peasantry alliance during the Revolution and Civil War” has been enlightened. Th e infl uence of Bolshevism ideology on the historical science has been shown. Th e reasons of Soviet historical narrative fl uctuation in Ukrainian „Marxist school” historiography of the 1920 – 1930-ies have been defi ned. Th e idea of the „Marxist historiography” going through a period of disengagement and uncertainity concerning the solution of national and social components of history under conditions of totalitarian USSR society has been grounded. It is evident that its social paradigm was close to the national concept, while the ideological pressure of the totalitarian system and political control of the government forced the Ukrainian Soviet historians to prioritize the development of the 1917 – 1920 Proletarian Revolution and Civil War class schema in Ukraine.

Tags: Marxist historiography social paradigm worker-peasant alliance totalitarian ideology post-totalitarian transformation

Author: Mariya Onopko
Author: Nataliia Kuzina
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 109-120
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201607
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201607.pdf

Abstract:

Economic Freedom and Migration from Ukraine: the Case of Well-Educated Youth. Th is paper is based on the idea that there is a special pattern in migration of the well-educated youth from Ukraine connected with the diff erence in levels of economic freedom that include higher salary and welfare. Th e survey was conducted in order to obtain data regarding infl uence of the level of economic freedom on the decision to leave and choice of the target country. Th e analysis of the survey results was carried out in terms of economic freedom and its importance to the respondents, that has brought authors to the conclusion that economic freedom is indeed important factor for educated youth when the decision to leave is made.

Tags: economic freedom culture migration economic liberalization social welfare

Author: Іrina Avtushenko
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 121-140
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201608
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201608.pdf

Abstract:

State social security and legal protection of servicemen of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and their families in 1997 – 2011. Th e social security of servicemen and their families is one of the most important objectives for the state. Th e conditions of service and life of servicemen have never been very comfortable. Th e only fi nancial source for military families has oft en been the allowance of the head of the family. Th e article is devoted to the activities of government and military authorities to ensure rights and privileges guaranteed by the law for the servicemen and their families. Th e level of fi nancial and medical support for the servicemen as well as shortcomings of social security and legal protection are investigated. It has been noted that creating a system of social security and benefi ts for military personnel should compensate the additional load that they experience while on duty.

Tags: social security and legal protection the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine servicemen the Armed Forces of Ukraine servicemen’s family members

Author: Evgen Papenko
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 143-156
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201609
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201609.pdf

Abstract:

Activity of Polish and Ukrainian Sokil societies in Eastern Galicia at the end of XIX – at the beginning of XX centuries. Th e article analyses diff erent activities of Polish and Ukrainian Sokil societies in Eastern Galicia at the end of XIX – at the beginning of XX centuries. In the article it is discovered the infl uence of socio-political process, which happened on West Ukrainian lands at the end of XIX century, upon the birth and development of Sokil movement. Th e main expansion ways of Sokil gymnastic and sport activity are determined. It is insisted that Ukrainian Sokil, being created ad exemplum of Czech and Polish ones, adopted only neighbors’ names and organizational structure. It is underlined that the new stage of combat for the statehood, being waged by the dependent nations, had begun thanks to activities of Sokil youth organizations of Austrian Hungarian Empire at the end of XIX – at the beginning of XX centuries. In was important that particularly this gymnastic and sport Sokil societies became the heart of Polish and Ukrainian army at the beginning of XX century.

Author: Oleksandr Gorbovijj
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 157-172
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/pomi201610
PDF: pomi/02/pomi201610.pdf

Abstract:

The problem Dnieper hydropower development in the works of researchers Ukrainian Scientifi c Institute in Warsaw (1930 – 1939 years). In 1930 Ukrainian scientist in exile established Th e Ukrainian Scientifi c Institute in Warsaw. Th e staff of the Institute carefully monitored the processes of the industrialization and collectivization in the USSR. Famous Ukrainian scientists Shovheniv I. and Ivanys V. in their works published four texts related to the problem of the hydro construction on the river Dnieper. Th ey emphasized the magnitude and complexity of these works, marked the creation of the major producer of the electricity and the waterways through the rapids. Simultaneously, researchers pointed to a number of disadvantages: problems with fi sheries, lack of anti-malarial operations, poor navigable infrastructure of the Dnieper and more. Shovheniv I. was not agreed with the exclusive appropriation the Dnieprostroi’s achievements by the Soviet authorities. He showed specifi c examples of such important hydro technique works in various countries, described the evolution of the river regulating operations in the Russian Empire and the Ukrainian state.

Tags: Emigration Dnipro cascade Th e Ukrainian Scientifi c Institute in Warsaw Shovheniv I. Ivanys V.

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