- Year of publication: 2021
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-11
- DOI Address: -
The purpose of the article is to consider the adoption of possibilities and the legitimacy of mechanisms of accountability of the prosecutor’s office as an institution, in particular by developing criteria for such an assessment that would lead to an increase in the level of efficiency of its functioning, as well as to an increase in the quality of services provided, assuming that the prosecutor’s office is perceived not only as an authority, but also as an entity providing public services. The above approach is inevitable in the era of spreading the idea of good governance, which is becoming more and more popular among the public authorities of modern, democratic countries. It can also be helpful in moving away from the dominant quantitative measurements, in favor of the prevailing qualitative approach of work results. The author analysed the dimensions of the prosecution’s responsibility at a level similar to political responsibility, characteristic for the assessment of the functioning of the legislative authority, and on the managerial level – reserved to the executive authority.
The aim of the article was to analyze compulsory legal representation in the proceedings before the Constitutional Tribunal, mainly based on jurisprudence of the Constitutional Tribunal related to this institution. For this purpose, the essence and scope of this institution, as well as subjective and objective exclusions have been presented. Attention was also paid to the participation of foreign lawyers in the proceedings before the Constitutional Tribunal. Finally, the need to reform this institution was raised.
The General Prosecutor, due to the unrestricted legitimacy, its role in protecting the rule of law and authorities from Constitutional Tribunal act, is a legal entity of great importance in regard to proceeding before the Constitutional Tribunal. The actions of the General Prosecutor are required to be assessed in correspondence with the implementation of statutory and constitutional authorities, effectiveness in requesting Constitutional Tribunal, presenting written statements, as well as overall activity before the Constitutional Tribunal. In conclusions the remarks on the General Prosecutors’s contribution in protection rule of law are presented.
There is no doubt that it is important for the electoral process to shape the structure and chronology of electoral activities properly. This is important both from the point of view of the elections organizing services, but also the electoral committees, candidates and the voters. The statutory arrangement of terms and directional assumptions concerning them should therefore take into account the needs and capabilities of both these groups. However, due to the fact that election practice has repeatedly indicated that the assumptions about deadlines cause significant problems during the electoral process, it is worth paying more attention to this issue. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the Polish legislator, when making general assumptions about deadlines, took into account the nature of electoral rights, or whether he was mainly guided by organizational considerations
The subject of the considerations made in the article is the theoretical and legal analysis of the amendment to the Polish electoral law relating to the issue of ensuring participation of disabled people in the electoral procedure. The outline of the legislative process initiated by submitting a deputy’s bill to amend certain acts in order to increase the participation of citizens in the process of electing, functioning and controlling certain public authorities (in particular by adding § 2a to article 52 of the electoral code), normative acts in the field of electoral law, insurance law, legal doctrine views are analyzed. In the article, the author answers the question whether the amendment to art. 52 of the electoral code, consisting of adding § 2a to it, is technical or warranty? The author conducts a polemic, during which he shows that Polish electoral law adopts the legal definition of disability. In addition, it is determined what causes of disability may justify the benefit of using art. 52 § 2a of the electoral code.
The constitution uses the term “rule” relatively rarely. We look for principles in an exponential way, thus establishing principles-norms and descriptive principles. Both of these categories are based on “system patterns” derived from legal science and jurisprudence. We apply numerous principles of constitutional law to administrative law. The principles of administrative law can be formulated on the basis of the Constitution, examples of which are provided in the text. At the same time, we take advantage of the inspiration of international law, but we can also derive from it rules which are self-binding in Poland, e.g. the validity and substitution character of the sources of EU and international law.
The Constitution of the Republic of Poland does not contain a provision that would directly shape the freedom of contract as a rule of law. However, this principle is so important in the private law system that its constitutional origin is beyond doubt. This article is an attempt to establish the foundations of the principle of freedom of contract under the Constitution of the Republic of Poland and to show whether these grounds differ from each other depending on the type of entities that freedom inhere. For this purpose, the views presented in the doctrine were analyzed using the qualitative method. This allowed the thesis that the legislator shapes the foundations of the principle of freedom of contract for natural persons more widely than for other types of private law entities. This, in turn, in the author’s opinion, leads to legal inequalities and allows shaping further-reaching restrictions on the principle of freedom of contract in relation to private law entities other than natural person
The article aims to analyze the freedom of association in the Republic of Poland in the context of the activities of consumer organizations. The considerations focus in particular on the analysis of legislation in this area. The article synthesizes selected acts of international and national law in the field of the operation of consumer organizations. The article presents the evolution of the basic laws and acts of a lower level in the context of the freedom of association in consumer organizations. The essence and idea of associations having the character of associations was also indicated. The last part of the article serves as a conclusion and includes considerations on the real role of consumer organizations and the need to implement the constitutional right of freedom of asso
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