- Year of publication: 2021
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-12
- DOI Address: -
On the Eve of the Birth of the Modern Doctrine of the Legal State? The Attitude of Polish Liberals to the Idea of the Rule of Law at the Beginning of the 19th Century
The article analyzes the problem of the attitude towards the idea of the rule of law of representatives of the Polish elite at the beginning of the 19th century. The author presents the development of the idea of the rule of law in the introduction. He verifies the thesis that the ideological basis for the concept of the rule of law was the Enlightenment thought on the basis of which the liberal doctrine developed. He used it to seek an answer to the question about the characteristics of the model of government established by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland of 1815. The author attempted to prove that, since the Kingdom (existing until 1831) with one of the most liberal constitutions in the first half of the 19th century was in force, then this act met all the conditions required for the establishment of the rule of law according to the standards adopted in that century. These considerations conclude with remarks on the further evolution of Polish liberal thought in the 1820s. It began to differ from the liberal assumptions on which the German Rechtstaat doctrine was built. Paradoxically, Rechtstaat concept had much more in common to Polish liberalism in the earlier (proto-liberal) stage of its development in the times of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1815) than of the Kingdom of Poland (1815–1831).
XIX w. Księstwo Warszawskie Królestwo Polskie państwo prawa rządy prawa liberalizm konstytucjonalizm legal state rule of law Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Warsaw 19th century liberalism constitutionalism
Are there Polish Traditions of the Rule of Law? Prolegomena for Research
The paper is a summary of a scientific seminar devoted to the problem of the Polish acquis concerning the concept of the Rule of Law and an introduction to in-depth research on this subject. The initial answer to the research question whether there is Polish achievements in the described field is positive. It is a centuries-old and relatively rich achievement. The answer to the question about the existence of the Polish tradition of the Rule of law, understood as continuity, is negative. Despite making more and more (partially understandable) attempts to prove this continuity and the existence of at least a partial continuation of the political system between the so called First, Second and Third Polish Republics, this continuity is only illusory and in fact has been broken several times. One can speak of a short-term continuity only within successive epochs in Polish history.
„Even the same Ones, who are Established to be Protectors of Law, they Ought to be Their First Preservers”. On the Rule of Law in the Debate and Reform work of Polish Great Sejm (1788–1792)
Although the theoretical assumptions of the concept of the rule of law have been developed in the continental tradition only in the 19th century, its systemic elements have their roots deep in history. In this contribution, the author analyses selected examples from the field of legislation and legal culture of the Great Sejm era (1788–1792). She focuses in particular on the problems of articulation and functioning of the supremacy of the constitution in the legal order and the innovative shaping of the responsibilities of key state authorities. These issues notably seem to reflect the suspension between the domestic heritage and the modernity of constitutionalism. At the same time, both cases prove that the ratio legis of these solutions was primarily of a practical, not conceptual nature.
Konstytucja 3 Maja nadrzędność konstytucji praworządność odpowiedzialność polityczna odpowiedzialność konstytucyjna supremacy of the constitution rule of law constitutional responsibility political accountability 3rd of May Constitution
The presented article is devoted to using present-day legal terminology in scientific research on pre-modern and pre-constitutional states’ legal systems. The main focus of analysis is the rule of law principle existence between the 16th and 18th centuries in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The author tries to establish whether this is even justified to use the modern idea of the rule of law to describe the Polish-Lithuanian pre-partitions political system? And, if so, how technically do that to avoid presentism? The author tries to formulate a set of features concerned with the rule of law principle applicable to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He also tries to determine the set of conditions necessary for the rule of law principle to blossom in pre-modern reality fully
“May the Polish Sejm be Tranquil, may the Polish Sejm be Quiet”. Building and Phasing out the Legal State in the Second Polish Republic
The inter-war period played the key role in the process of realizing the idea of the legal state in Poland. It brought the uninhibited opportunity to establish a new the form of government based on solid democratic standards and the rule of law for the first time since the country had lost its independence in the late 18th century. It was expressed in the legal instruments of the March Constitution of 1921. Practical enforcement of the legal state concept in the Second Polish Republic was far from ideal though. It resulted from various political, social, economic and international challenges. The March Constitution, not always clearly worded, was subject to widespread criticism and its cumbersome regulations were ignored. Moving gradually away from the rule of law, marked by the Sanacja elites becoming more authoritarian after 1926, was expressed on three levels: creating law, including subsequent constitutional regulations, it’s interpretations and enforcement. Gradual transformation of the parliamentary-cabinet system of the March Constitution into authoritarian state was the result of these processes. The article attempts to analyze the inter-war experience from the point of view of growing degradation of the rule of law and the reasons for its instability in the Second Polish Republic.
międzywojenny konstytucjonalizm Polska międzywojenna II Rzeczpospolita państwo prawa kreowanie ustroju państwa Second Polish Republic Interwar Poland creating the state system legal state interwar constitutionalism
The Territorial Self-Government and the Division of State Powers under the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997
Territorial self-government is an institution deeply entrenched in the fabric of civil society. As a result, the state should guarantee that institution’s right to evolve naturally, following the development of and attainment of successive maturity stages by Polish civil society. Consequently, according to the constitution-maker’s intentions, the constitutional regime of territorial self-government should not be an inhibitive factor for the natural processes accompanying the civil society’s development within self-governing communities, but it should allow for the ossification of such processes in territorial self-government laws. In this paper, the possibility of implementing the above assumption and the powers of territorial self-government are considered through the prism of the principles of the division of state powers and decentralization of public authorities. The considerations lead to the conclusion that there are systemic foundations for the separation of self-government authority within the vertical division of state power.
zasada decentralizacji władzy publicznej zasada podziału władzy państwowej status wspólnoty samorządowej członek wspólnoty samorządowej samorząd lokalny/regionalny instytucja samorządu terytorialnego społeczeństwo obywatelskie civil society władza/uprawnienia samorządu terytorialnego institution of territorial self-government local/regional self-government member of self-governing community status of self-governing community principle of the division of state powers principle of decentralization of public authorities powers of territorial self-government
Breach of Oath as a Reason for Dismissal of the Ombudsman by the Sejm
The purpose of this article is to determine whether, and if so to what extent, failure to comply with specific duties declared in the oath of office taken by an Ombudsman before taking office is relevant to the assessment of his responsibilities. The Sejm shall dismiss the ombudsman before the end of the period for which he was appointed if the Ombudsman has misappropriated his oath. Therefore, special attention has been paid in this study to the effects of the Ombudsman’s oath. The article examines the content of this oath and the conditions of exercising the right to dismiss the ombudsman by the Sejm. Such a decision must take into account, in particular, the independence of the ombudsman and the rule of tenure.
odwołanie ze stanowiska Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich skutki naruszenia obowiązków wynikających ze ślubowania ślubowanie oaths of office effects of the oath’s infringement ombudsman recall of an ombudsman
The Ombudsman and the Organs of Judicial Power
The author shows that, in order to protect rights and freedoms, the Ombudsman, with the help of various instruments and depending on the infringements found, undertakes actions with organs of the judiciary, on which obligations concerning the protection of human rights and other subjects have been imposed. This article reviews the forms of the Ombudsman’s relations with the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, the Constitutional Tribunal, and common courts. Their aim is to raise the level of respect for human and civil rights. In this context the thesis of the article is as follows: in view of structural, legal and organisational defects of the state, the Ombudsman notes that new threats to human and civil rights appear, freedoms or rights granted to them are often taken away in a manner inconsistent with constitutional standards, and public authorities exceed the sphere of their powers in an expcessive manner. Allegations made in complaints against public authorities are often verified by the Ombudsman in the course of inquiries with his participation. The Ombudsman keeps his distance from these bodies, which enables him to influence them in the field of human rights protection, and above all to influence the individuals subordinate to them.
Supreme Court Sąd Najwyższy skarga konstytucyjna Trybunał Konstytucyjny ombudsman Constitutional Complaint constitutional court Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich organy ochrony prawnej skarga nadzwyczajna sprzeciw legal protection bodies extraordinary complaint
Implementation a Programmatic Norm Resulting from Article 68 para. 4 of the Constitution of Poland in the State of the COVID-19 Epidemic (general comments)
The article refers to the issue related to the implementation by public authorities of the obligation to combat epidemic diseases. The COVID-19 epidemic situation in Poland requires the state to intensify its efforts to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 infectious disease. Actions taken by public authorities are related to, inter alia with the need to restrict the freedoms and rights of the individual, which may be introduced provided that they are consistent with the requirements provided in the Constitution of Poland. The article points out the irregularities occurring in this area, taking into account the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Tribunal, and the views of the doctrine
Dilemmas of Freedom and their Legal Implications
Each legal institution begins from an idea, therefore a thought is primary in relation to the legal norm created by the legislator. This makes the analysis of this idea is significant and cannot be ignored. Freedom is one of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the contemporary constitutionalism. The article is an analysis of the philosophical and legal understanding of the concept of freedom and the ways of its transfer to the law. The author claims that the concept of freedom is a vague concept for a European lawyer, on the foundation of which it is difficult to build a legal system. On the one hand, this concept seems familiar and it is difficult to directly deny it, but its definition, and even more so, the adoption of the consequences associated with this definition is debatable.
Civil Service in the Jurisprudence of the Constitutional Tribunal
The civil service (c.s.) is a key element of any nation of law. As an institution responsible for exercising the public authority c.s. is not free from political pressure and takeover attempts for the purposes of the party. Polish experience in the creation of a politically neutral c.s. has not been impressive. The first regulation was created during the interwar period. After the World War II, the idea of an independent and professional c.s. was gradually dismantled to be completely abandoned in 1974. After the collapse of PRL, until 1996, there were several unsuccessful attempts to revive c.s. In that year the parliament adopted a basis for the c.s. system but even that attempt was subsequently revised in upcoming years by further changes (three new acts of law). Moreover, it has to be pointed out that during those years the actions of decision-makers concerning the c.s. have been the subject of jurisprudence by the Constitutional Tribunal. The rulings issued by the Tribunal have shaped the operational conditions which are important for c.s. and have developed an interpretation of the constitutional axioms of that institution. Analysis of key sentences of the Constitutional Court is the subject of this paper.
bezstronność polityzacja neutralność polityczna profesjonalizm służba cywilna orzecznictwo Trybunał Konstytucyjny professionalism impartiality political neutrality politicization Jurisprudence Constitutional Tribunal, civil service
Constitutive and Conventional Provenance of Law to Fair Consideration of Case (Right to a Fair Trial)
The text is devoted to the problem of the right to a fair trial, which the Polish legislator recognizes as the one of the most important civil rights and liberties. The constitutive and conventional lineage of this right was indicated. It is noted in the text that this right can only be excercised in a state that recognizes the tripartite division of power as well as in situation in which common judiciary is based on four fundamental foundations such as jurisdiction to hear a case of a given type, impartiality, independent in legal, organisational and decision-making terms.
prawa i wolności osobiste sprawiedliwe rozpatrzenie sprawy bezstronność niezawisłość wymiar sprawiedliwości sądy powszechne prawo do sądu konstytucja niezależność Constitution the right to a fair trial fair consideration of case justice common courts personal rights and freedoms independence impartiality
The Right to a Healthy Environment as a Constitutionally Guaranteed Subjective Right
Environmental protection and the protection of the individual are closely related. This relationship has many aspects, which are subject to more and more analysis in the literature. The author is of the opinion that the right to a healthy environment should be treated as one of the individual human rights. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the necessity to sanction the right to a healthy environment in the Polish Constitution. For this purpose, the provisions of the constitution were analyzed, and the constitutional practice of european countries and international practice were presented.
Legislative Aspects of the NRAs’ Status in the Infrastucture Sectors
Ownership and structural changes in the infrastructural sectors of the Polish economy in the last three decades, while maintaining the public interest (art. 22 of the Constitution) and the implementation of the “social” market economy principle (art. 20) of the state’s influence on these sectors, justify the need for a legal and constitutional reflection on the status of activities of regulatory bodies in these sectors. The accession to the European Union has placed said activities on the path of the Union’s integration policies, aimed at “horizontal” integration of the infra-structural sectors of the EU member states. A typical and most commonly used legal tool for implementing EU integration undertakings are sectoral directives of the European Parliament and the Council. The Polish regulatory authorities with their postulated attributes of independence, professionalism and objectivity, have found themselves in the field where two routes of the addressed impacts cross: the EU sectoral integration route and the route of implementation of national policy toward infrastructure sectors (steaming from the Polish Council of Ministers and from relevant ministries). The author, identifying the elements of such use, points out the constitutional and legal uncertainties (even: dilemmas) in regard to the relationship between the Council of Ministers (and the Prime Minister)/relevant ministries and the state sectoral regulatory bodies.
administracja rządowa Rada Ministrów krajowe organy regulacyjne integracja sektorów infrastrukturalnych niezależność organu regulacyjnego regulacja pro-konkurencyjna regulacja pro-społeczna status prawnoustrojowy organów regulacyjnych uchwały Rady Ministrów unijne dyrektywy sektorowe zarządzenia ministrów (wiążące wewnętrznie) Council of Ministers, Conucil of Ministers’ resolutions EU “sectoral” directives government administration independence of regulatory authorities integration of infrastructural sectors legal status of regulatory authorities ministerial orders (internally binding) national regulatory authorities pro-competitive regulation pro-social regulation
The One-in, One-out Principle as the Limit of Legislative Interference into the Sphere of Freedom of Economic Activity
The article deals with the issue of the limit of legislative interference in the sphere of freedom of economic activity, defined by the one-in, one-out principle, introduced at the turn of 2010 and 2011 in Great Britain, in relation to the issue of restricting the freedom of economic activity in the light of art. 22 and art. 31 s. 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997.
one-out zasada one-in ograniczenie wolności działalności gospodarczej wolność działalności gospodarczej konstytucja Constitution freedom of economic activity restricting the freedom of economic activity the one-in one-out principle Poland Great Britain Polska Wielka Brytania
The Implementation of the Constitutional Right to Education in Educational Practice. An Educator’s Perspective
The political, economic and social changes that took place in Poland after 1989 meant that one of the first areas of social life that was subject to thorough legal changes was the education system, changes which, as practice proves, are of a continuous nature. The aim of the article is an attempt to evaluate the implementation of the constitutional right to education (Art. 70) and related rights (Art. 53, paragraph 3 and Art. 73) in the context of the organization and functioning of the Polish education system. This is the view of a pedagogue who has been analyzing the legislative solutions of subsequent authorities of the Ministry of Education in the context of everyday educational practice for many years, with particular emphasis on the effects of the introduced formal and legal solutions.
ustawy akty wykonawcze polski system edukacji konstytucyjne prawo do nauki Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej Constitution of the Republic Poland constitutional right to education polish education system the Law executive acts
Russia’s Constitutional Reform of 2020
In 2020 took place the most serious constitutional reform in the Russian Federation. The amendments result in the strengthening of the President in the political system, enable V. Putin to maintain power until 2034 and introduce some other significant changes. The aim of the following paper is to present the circumstances of the reform, the contents of the amendments, and their overall summary. Particular attention was paid to the following issues: relations among main institutions of state power, the place of international law in the sources of Russia’s law and other amendments related to constitutional identity and axiology. The reform results in strengthening the position of the President, even though still within the semi-presidential model of the political system, the diminished role of the Parliament, local self-government and deprivation of the autonomy of the judiciary.
The Position of a Head of State in the Political System of the Principality of Liechtenstein
The aim of the article is to present the position of a head of state in the Principality of Liechtenstein. The Principality is one of the European monarchies, but it is distinguished from others by the fact that the position of the prince is far-reaching, by no means limited only to representatives functions. The prince’s activity to internal and external politics is rooted in the constitution in force since 1921 and was presented in the article. The position of the head of state also results from historical and social conditions. It is salso based on non-constitutional solutions. Princerly prerogatives are broad. Although attempts were made to limit them, such proposals were rejected in a referendum. Additionally, during the voting in 2003, the ruler’s powers were further extended.
The Indian Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act 2010 as a Proposal for Legal Solutions Regarding the Financing of Entities Operating within the Country with a Foreign Contribution
The article presents the legal order of India in the field of legislative solutions regarding the regulation of the use of foreign funds by public and private sector entities. The legal basis is the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act 2010, with amendments in subsequent years. The purpose of the adopted normative act was to define specific rules that condition and allow for the possibility of financing entities operating within the country with foreign contributions. The assumption of the legislation was to reduce the possibility of indirect influence over the state policy, as well as to prevent actions harmful to the national interest with its core values, such as democracy, the rule of law, transparency of state bodies and the protection of civil rights.
Citizens’ Legislative Initiative in Italy – Legal Regulation and Practice
The Italian constitution of 1947 regulates two forms of direct democracy: people’s initiative and a referendum. According to its Art. 71 sec. 2, at least fifty thousand voters have the right to introduce legislation, a draft must be formulated in articles. Details of the procedure are laid down in Law 352/1970 “Norme sui referendum previsti in Costituzione e sull’iniziativa legislativa del popolo”. The signature collection procedure is complicated and requires the collection of many declarations and confirmations. A review of citizens’ bills submitted to the chambers of the Italian Parliament from 1996 to today shows that the number of these bills varies between twenty and thirty some in a term (several per year). Until 2020, there was no discernible trend in this respect, neither upward nor downward. A very small proportion of the citizens’ bills submitted becomes law. Therefore, it should be assessed that the right to submit citizenship bills is also treated – or perhaps even primarily – as a political tool, an instrument used to initiate discussions on socially and politically important topics.
the legislative process Constitution of Italy right to introduce legislation droga ustawodawcza Konstytucja Włoch inicjatywna obywatelska Italy citizens’ legislative initiative Włochy inicjatywa ustawodawcza
Replacement of the President in Office under the XXVth Amendment to the US Constitution
The situation, unprecedented in the history of the United States, of launching the impeachment procedure for the second time during one term of office against a sitting president was preceded by an attempt to use another mechanism for removing a head of state from office, namely the mechanism provided for in the XXV th Amendment to the Constitution. The purpose of this article is to analyze Section 4 of the XXV th Amendment, in light of the January 2021 events that took place on Capitol Hill. The methods used during the work include: historical, dogmatic-legal and linguistic method. The conclusions support the presumed thesis that, compared to impeachment proceedings, the XXV th Amendment mechanism is a faster process that does not require indictments or Congressional proceedings. However, it requires a particularly politically difficult decision by the vice president acting in consultation with the heads of departments of the American government, fraught with potential consequences should the ousted President return to power, in view of the administration’s total dependence on the decisions of the head of state. It is these circumstances that must be considered the reasons why the provisions under consideration have not been applied in practice.
Constitutional Oversight of Government Surveillance in the United States
The aim of the article is the analysis of constitutional oversightof the government surveillance in the United States. Referring to Snowden affair and COVID-19 surveillance, the Author discusses the challenges faced by the legislative and judicial branches in pursuing control over the executive’s national security policies. Focusing on the rule of secrecy and other constitutional doctrines and privileges, he tries to explain why effective control of government surveillance is today impossible.
Ultra vires Rulings of the Court of Justice of the European Union and their Assessment in the Jurisprudence of the German Federal Constitutional Court. Aside from the Judgment of May 5, 2020
On May 5, 2020, the German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) ruled on the legality of the public sector asset purchase program established by the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). What is particularly important, this issue was the subject of a preliminary ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), issued following an inquiry from a German court. The FCC’s decision is of particular importance in the context of plans to launch a European Reconstruction Fund to combat the effects of the coronavirus pandemic. The German court questioned the treaty bases of the decisions of the European Central Bank (ECB) on the basis of which the bonds were issued. What is particularly important, the German court emphasized not only the right, but even the obligation to examine by the constitutional courts of the EU Member States whether the activity of European institutions goes beyond the powers conferred on them in the treaties (ultra vires). The content of this decision and its extensive justification will certainly have a great impact on the functioning of the European Union.
Federal Constitutional Court prawo europejskie Federalny Trybunał Konstytucyjny European law Trybunał Sprawiedliwości Unii Europejskiej Court of Justice of the European Union Europejski Bank Centralny European Central Bank
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