Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 3-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/40/ppk40toc.pdf

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CONTENTS / SPIS TREŚCI

table of contents

Author: Małgorzata Lorencka
Institution: University of Silesia in Katowice
Author: Mariathi Kalyviotou
Institution: Scientific Council of the Hellenic Parliament
Author: Giulia Aravantinou Leonidi
Institution: University la Sapienza of Rome
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 11-35
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.01
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4001.pdf

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The article analyzes the political changes that have taken place in Greece following a double parliamentary election of 2015 (in January and September), focusing on three levels: 1) party system change, 2) electoral system change into parliament, 3) constitutional reform. The first part of the text sets out the basic changes in the structure of the party system, emphasizing the electoral victory of the radical forces – the far left populist SYRIZA or the rise of the far-right (Golden Dawn) in the double election of 2015.
The paper also briefly reviews the nature and functioning of the Greek parliamentary electoral system with special regard to the newly adopted electoral law. In this respect, the paper highlights the main constitutional principles governing suffrage, as a necessary background to examining and understanding the framework upon which Greek electoral systems are based. It also presents the main features of the current electoral system, since it is the one to be applied in the following parliamentary election. The focus will be then on the recent reform of the electoral system in Greece after the adoption of Law 4406/2016. The paper analyses its most significant aspects and raises a number of relevant questions. Special reference is made to the voting procedure followed by the Greek Parliament for the adoption of Law 4406/2016, since it is a key factor for its enforcement.
Since the outbreak of the crisis discussions about constitutional reform have been ongoing in Greece, although the initiation of a formal amendment process was blocked until 2013, due to the time-constraints imposed by the constitutional amending formula. The paragraph assesses the proposals made in July 2016 by the Tsipras government for a radical revision of the 1975 Constitution, taking into account the intense debate which engaged Greek constitutional law scholars. The Author highlights the particular features of the Greek constitutional revision model, characterized by political-elite-driven change which has led in the past to amending attempts lacking of a broad consensus. The broad scope of the proposed amendments requires political foresight and caution to prevent the constitutional revision from being reduced to a mere political diversion to ensure the permanence in power of certain political actors in the absence of consent and to deflect attention from continued controversial austerity policies.

Grecja reforma konstytucji reforma systemu wyborczego zmiana systemu partyjnego Greece electoral system reform party system change constitutional reforms

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Author: Piotr Mikuli
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Cracow
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 37-48
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.02
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4002.pdf

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The short article discusses the competences of ombudsmen in Sweden and Finland in relation to the judiciary. These institutions have controlling and supervisory powers in relation to courts of law, including the determination of the accountability of judges and typical competences of a prosecutor. The Author points out the necessity to read provisions of the constitutions and acts regulating the discussed competences in the light of the principle of the judiciary’s independence. Still, the supervisory rights of ombudsmen in Sweden and Finland are very well developed and may refer to issues approaching closely the sphere of jurisdiction. When assessing the solutions presented, the Author points out the fact that the ombudsmen in both countries have worked out respective practices aimed at such use of available means of control so they cannot be accused of a reasonable and too extended interference with the judiciary sphere.

sądy niezależność sądownictwo Finlandia Szwecja courts judiciary Finland Sweden ombudsman independence

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Author: Łukasz Jakubiak
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Cracow
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 49-69
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.03
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4003.pdf

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The paper deals with distinguishing features of presidential systems of government adopted in the current or former constitutions of some Francophone African countries, such as Benin, Djibouti, Ivory Coast or the Republic of Congo. Particular attention has been devoted to the internal structure of the executive branch of government (the existence of the prime minister as a separate body) as well as to the reception of diverse mechanisms of rationalised parliamentarianism created previously in the constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The dynamics of constitutional changes leading to the adoption of presidentialism in place of semi-presidentialism and vice versa in such countries as Niger or Senegal has also been taken into account. In the light of the findings, it can be stated that the specific properties of presidentialism in Francophone Africa prove its apparent distinctness from certain typical assumptions of this model.

premier głowa państwa parlamentaryzm zracjonalizowany prezydencjalizm system rządów Afryka frankofońska the prime minister the head of state rationalised parliamentarianism presidentialism Francophone Africa the system of government

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Author: Viktoriya Serzhanova
Institution: University of Rzeszów
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 71-86
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.04
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4004.pdf

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The present legal status of Transnistria neither seems to be obvious, nor distinctly determined. Its estimation in the context of the region’s statehood has been a subject of disputes of, and divides at the same time, the theorists of state, international lawyers, as well as experts in international relations and political sciences. The hereby paper is an attempt of making the analysis of the selected issues determining Transdniester’s status, first and foremost from the perspective of the theory of state and constitutional law, but also taking into account the international law point of view. It aims at finding an answer to the question on its legal and constitutional status as it is seen by both the unrecognized Transnistria’s state and Moldavia. The subject of the work contains the analysis of the elements of a state’s definition in the context of Transnistria. Moreover, it comprises considerations over the right of nations to self-determination and the problem of sovereignty as regards to the region. It also concentrates on the analysis of Transnistria’s status based on the Moldavian legislation, as well as different possibilities and opportunities/chances to solve the conflict lasting for almost thirty years.

prawo narodów do samostanowienia suwerenność władza publiczna terytorium ludność naród definicja państwa Naddniestrzańska Republika Mołdawska państwa nieuznawane Naddniestrze the right of nations to self-determination sovereignty public power territory people nation definition of a state Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic unrecognized states Transnistria

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Author: Michał Zbigniew Dankowski
Institution: University of Gdańsk
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 87-99
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.05
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4005.pdf

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During the last decade the separatist activities of the Catalan nationalists have intensified. Despite the enactment of the Statute of Autonomy in 2006, extending the existing autonomy of the Autonomous Community, Catalonia’s governing political parties strived for total independence. In view of the consistent attitude of the central government in Madrid refusing any concessions on the extension of autonomy or independence, the Autonomous Government of Catalonia (Generalitat) appealed to the institutions of direct democracy, calling twice for a Catalan referendum on independence. In both cases, the Spanish Constitutional Court declared the referendum unlawful. In spite of this, Catalonia declared independence after the referendum of October 1st, 2017, although the effects of the declaration were also suspended – a situation so far unknown to law.

Statut Autonomiczny Wspólnoty Autonomiczne demokracja bezpośrednia prawomocność autonomia Hiszpania niepodległość Katalonia Statute of Autonomy Autonomous Communities legality Catalonia autonomy Spain independence direct democracy referendum

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Author: Anna Michalak
Institution: University of Lodz
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 101-114
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.06
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4006.pdf

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Any discussion of human rights in post-colonial countries of Asia conducted from the perspective of Western civilization faces many obstacles, particularly related to existing differences, or even cultural barriers and different traditions. Postcolonial states, despite the remaining remnants of the colonial era-visible in their legal systems, that still contain normative acts adopted before obtaining sovereignty – very firmly resist to the adoption of the universal catalog of human rights set out in the UN Covenants, as well as the use of standards in their observance that are compatible with those made within the United Nations. Both – the so-called ideology of Asian values, as well as the concept of the ASEAN community is not conducive to the creation of international binding legal framework and does not allow (or even leading in the future) to create a universal system of human rights protection. On the contrary – it leads to the deepening ideological differences or even philosophical, in the further development of democracy among Western countries and Asia. From the perspective of European constitutional law, it may be interesting to see the arguments of post-colonial Asia judges on the issue of the division of power in the context of judicial activism and the protection of constitutional values. The purpose of this publication is to present the views of Singapore’s judiciary in connection with the reforms introduced in 2013 that abolish the mandatory death penalty for certain crimes together with the possibility of replacing it by a court decision with life imprisonment and flogging.

aktywizm sędziowski kontrola konstytucyjności kara śmierci prawa człowieka Azja postkolonialna judicial discretion constitutional review the death penalty post-colonial Asia human rights

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Author: Schweitzer Gábor
Institution: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, National University of Public Service
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 115-125
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.07
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4007.pdf

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The paper is dealing with the constitutional and historical importance of Act I. of 1946. In 1946 Hungary has changed its form of government. The passage of Act I of 1946 has defined Hungary’s form of government as a republic. In addition to the creation of a republic, the legislation provided powers for the president of the Hungarian Republic. Moreover, the Preamble of Act I. of 1946 was the first document in the Hungarian constitutional history which summarized and declared the most important natural and inalienable rights of the citizens.

konstytucja republika Węgry 1946 Republic prawa człowieka głowa państwa Constitution Hungary human rights head of state

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Author: Paweł Kubacki
Institution: University of Lodz
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 127-139
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.08
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4008.pdf

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The subject of this article is the character and meaning of the head of state’s liability. The author notices that this institution is an important factor that determines the systemic and legal position of the supreme body in the country, and adopting different solutions in this matter may make the position of heads of state significantly different, even if they seem to have a similar character. This relation has been shown on the example of regulations of liability of the heads of state in Monaco and Liechtenstein. In both countries, there is an almost identical manner of appointing to the office of a head of state and the scope of their authorities. However, the matter of liability has been regulated in a completely different way in these two countries.

Książe Lichtnsteinu Książe Monako odpowiedzialność konstytucyjna Prince of Liechtenstein Prince of Monaco głowa państwa constitutional liability head of state

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Author: Radosław Grabowski
Institution: University of Rzeszów
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 141-154
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.09
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4009.pdf

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The practice of placing in the constitution provisions relating to state symbols (emblem, flag, anthem) is satisfactory. Often accompany such regulation standards, the task is to indicate the center of which is the state capital. The desirability of such regulations is questionable, hence the question whether it is a common practice. The analysis covers the EU Member States. It is a inhomogeneous group, which should be considered as an advantage, because it allows to review the solutions. The aim is to answer the question of whether the EU countries there is a widespread practice of the constitutional establishment of the state capital, whether it is the dominant model, is it possible there are different solutions in this area, when such adjustments are redundant, whether such cases allow conclusions that can be application in practice of Polish political system.

stolica państwa symbol państwowy the capital of the state state symbol konstytucja Constitution

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Author: Edyta Krzysztofik
Institution: John Paul Catholic University of Lublin
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 155-169
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.10
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4010.pdf

Streszczenie:

The present article is an attempt to answer the question about the position of the principle of respect for constitutional identities of Member States and its impact on the application of EU law in the national legal order. For this purpose three areas will be considered.
Firstly, the analysis of the principle of respect for national identity in EU law and in the case law of the Court of Justice will be conducted.
Secondly, the principle of competence entrusted to the EU will be analysed, together with its interpretation at the EU level.
Thirdly, the understanding of the notion of constitutional identity in the case law of Constitutional Courts of selected Member States will be considered.
It proved that the principle of respect for constitutional identity is treated both at national and EU level as an integral part of the concept of “national identity”. The national identity has a broad meaning and refers to values that are cherished by a particular nation, which it considers to be an element distinguishing that nation from other nations. The constitutional identity narrows the scope and concentrates on the constitutional achievements, the expression of the legal culture and the achievements of the political thought of the nation, which were shaped by the history of a given nation. These two aspects jointly determine the position of the state and nation in international relations. The principle of respect for national identity is one of the constitutional principles of the EU. On one hand, it implies the EU’s duty to undertake activities which do not affect national identity, including constitutional identity, of Member States. On the other hand, it obligates it to ensure the diversity of Member States.

zasada kompetencji powierzonych zasada poszanowania tożsamości konstytucyjnej sada poszanowania tożsamości narodowej Trybunał Sprawiedliwości the principle of entrusted competence the principle of respect of national identity e principle of respect of constitutional identity The Court of Justice Unia Europejska European Union

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Author: Hanna Wiczanowska
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 171-184
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.11
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4011.pdf

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One of the most crucial principles of democratic regime is the concept of civil society. The implications of such concept are also visible within the area of labour law as the right to strike has been perceived as its core element. The primary purpose of the presented article is to consider whether the application of the doctrine of civil society automatically disables for a recognition of lockout for the employers’ organizations within the Polish legal system as well as international standards. The presented paper will mainly rely upon the legal dogmatic analysis of the provisions of Polish Constitution from 1997 and international regulations. The author will also use the elements of the comparative analysis between Polish standards amd norms enacted by the Council of Europe and the European Union. The innovative approach of the paper is the complex analysis of the Polish solutions from the intenational perspective in terms of equality between labour and the capital.

equality between labour and capital prawo pracy Konstytucja RP prawo do strajku społeczeństwo obywatelskie równość pomiędzy pracą a kapitałem labour law right to strike lockout civil society Polish constitution

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Author: Marta Michalczuk-Wlizło
Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 185-197
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.12
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4012.pdf

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The aim of the article is to present legal regulations and practice of adopting laws adapting Polish law to the law of the European Union. From the date of accession, the Republic of Poland is obliged to constantly monitor the law created within the European Union, to check the national provisions of law for compatibility with those of the EU and, if necessary, to adapt them to Community standards.
The necessity to fulfill the commitments undertaken by Poland has resulted not only in the change of the law content, but also of the legislative procedures.

tryb uchwalania ustaw dostosowywanie prawa procedures for enacting laws law adaptation Unia Europejska European Union

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Author: Agnieszka Bień-Kacała
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 199-218
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.13
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4013.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article describes the theoretical concept of constitutional change. The cases of constitutional changes and amendments since 1989 have been analyzed in the text. The historical approach is used as a background for the current Polish events conceptualization.
The theories formulated by Y. Raznai, R. Albert, B. Ackermann, S. Griffin, D. Landau are applied for purpose of the analysis. The authors consider the problems of: constitutional change, constitutional amendment and dismemberment, constitutional moment, as well as a kind of constitutionalism, which is connected to an abuse of power by the parliamentary majority (illiberal constitutionalism).
This paper analyses following issues: the conceptualization of constitutional amendment procedure and constitutional change in formal and informal ways as well as the constitutional moment. Moreover, the Polish academia opinions on the amendment and change are presented. Eventually, the identification of the recent Polish systemic events from a theoretical perspective and the summary of the research are provided.
The assessment of current events takes into account the historical background – the transformation started in 1989 and ended with the adoption of the 1997 Constitution. The conclusion is connected to identification of the constitutional moments which legitimize or not the transformation of the system.

nowelizacja transformacja zmiana nieformalna ustrój amendment informal system konstytucja Constitution Change transformation

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Author: Sabina Grabowska
Institution: University of Rzeszów
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 219-233
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.14
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4014.pdf

Streszczenie:

The creation of a special body whose sole purpose is to rule on violations of the constitution or statutes by senior state officials, including the president, is relatively rare. Only Greece and Poland have implemented such a solution and until recently also the French law provided such a possibility but the amendment of the Constitution in 2007 changed the legislation within that scope. The subject of the study is the analysis of Polish regulations concerning the State Tribunal in the context when the National Assembly adopts a resolution to put the President in charge of committing a constitutional delinquency.

delikt konstytucyjny Trybunał Stanu prezydent constitutional delict State Tribunal president odpowiedzialność konstytucyjna constitutional liability

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Author: Grzegorz Koksanowicz
Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 235-251
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.15
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4015.pdf

Streszczenie:

The direct application of the constitutional provisions gives rise to many problems due to the particularities involved. These problems can be encountered not only in a judicial, but also in a managerial type of law application. Within the framework of the last model, the application of the constitutional provisions has to be considered through the Sejm of the Republic of Poland. The constitutional law focuses on the institutions of the political system.It determines the structure, functions, the competencies and the relationship between them. Taking into consideration the fact that the parliament has an important influence on the functioning of governance, the issue of the direct application of constitutional provisions by that authority is taking on new significance. The issue of the application of the constitutional rules relating to the Sejm internal organisation and its political functions has to be considered as relevant. The order of the direct application of the constitution indicates not only the necessity of application of the regulations, which define its organisation, operation and the subject of activity, but also these, which express so-called principles and values. Their full normative content is generally determined in jurisdiction of Constitutional Tribunal, which in turn obliges the Sejm and its authorities to apply these regulations in a manner which takes into account the judicial acquis of this organ.

bezpośrednie stosowanie konstytucji zasada autonomii parlamentu postępowanie ustawodawcze direct application of the Constitution principle of the parliament autonomy legislative process konstytucja Constitution

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Author: Łukasz Buczkowski
Institution: Łomża State University of Applied Sciences
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 253-282
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.16
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4016.pdf

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The purpose of the article is to compare the theoretical basis of representation with the real relations between the representative and the collectivity, as practiced in the functioning of the representative government. In the first part, the author focuses on explaining the modern understanding of representative democracy against the background of the classic theory of representation; the second part is devoted to the presentation of the legal aspect of the representative mandate, considering the transformation of the discussed institution in the context of European and Polish constitutional law. The third part is to present the discrepancies between the legal construction of representation and political and systemic practice of its functioning, together with an indication of the reasons for this gap. The relations between the mandate holder and the voters, and the internal system of relations between the representatives and their political groups of origin have been analysed.

polityczno-ustrojowa praktyka sprawowania mandatu demokracja przedstawicielska klasyczna koncepcja przedstawicielstwa mandat przedstawicielski political and systemic practice of representative mandate functioning representative democracy classic theory of representation representative mandate

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Author: Marcin Michał Wiszowaty
Institution: University of Gdańsk
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 283-298
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.17
PDF: ppk/40/ppk4017.pdf

Streszczenie:

The first orders had been established and awarded by monarchs long before the republican concept of presidency was developed. The many powers which presidents took over from monarchs include, inter alia, the awarding (and revoking) of state honours. The issue, usually regarded as marginal, does not appeal to constitutional law scholars. Poland’s legal regulations concerning orders are hardly precise (this being particularly true as far as the constitutional law is discussed) and the fact gives rise to many practical problems concerning application of the country’s constitution and statutes from the field, quite frequently going beyond the matters of orders in the strict meaning of the phrase. One of the questions of the kind, not having become an object of interest to legal scholars so far, is the acceptance by the President of the Republic of Poland of foreign orders and distinctions received either within his capacity as the supreme representative of the State in international relations or as a private individual. The picture resulting from an analysis of practice and theory of order-related issues is hardly a coherent one. The following paper – besides due presentation – aims at sharpening the somewhat blurry image.

Order Św. Serafinów Odznaczenia Ordery Prezydent RP Royal Order of the Seraphim Decorations Szwecja Sweden president of Poland smart borders

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 327-332
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/40/ppk40edit.pdf

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NOTES ABOUT AUTHORS

Author: Daniel Knaga
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 11-33
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.01
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3501.pdf

Streszczenie:

Evident groundlessness constitutional complaint

Grounds of constitutional complaints admissibility have in majority formal character. According to article 77.3.3 The Constitutional Tribunal Act of 25 June 2015, the Tribunal shall issue a decision on refusal to proceed with an application of a constitutional complaint, if an application or a constitutional complaint are manifestly unfounded. Evident groundlessness is constitutes a substantial requirement od admissibility. Since it has a character of a general clause, its meaning is determined in the process of application of law. Any doubts whether the complaint is evidently groundless, should result with its consideration in regular proceedings, and full examination of its legitimacy. The possibility of the substantive examination of complaints grounds, at the preliminary stage has an exceptional character, and should be given restrictive interpretation. The practice based on the opposite assumption could change constitutional complaints role as a remedy for constitutional rights and freedoms infringement.

klauzula generalna ustawa o Trybunale Konstytucyjnym konstytucyjne prawa i wolności oczywista bezzasadność skarga konstytucyjna

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Author: Paweł Króliczek
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 35-53
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.02
PDF: ppk/40/ppk3502.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article focuses on the analysis of objective scope of right to put forward a constitutional complaint. Of particular imprtance, for this issue, is the function of constitutional complaint. It is an instrument of human rights protection. Due to the brevity of statutory and constitutional regulation of this problem, Constitutional Tribunal had to determine this aspect of its activity. It is glaringly obvious that individuals are the biggest group of complainants because constitutional rights inhere mainly to a natural person. It is crucial that constitutional complaint is a guarantee of exactly that entitlements. Disputes have arisen with the granting a proactive complainants legitimation for collective bodies, especially public ones.

jednostka, ochrona praw i wolności konstytucyjnych zakres podmiotowy skargi konstytucyjnej skarga konstytucyjna

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Author: Jakub G. Firlus
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Author: Natalie Fox
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 55-69
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.03
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3503.pdf

Streszczenie:

On June 23rd, 2016, the United Kingdom (UK) held an EU-Referendum which resulted in a vote in favor of withdrawing from the European Union (EU). However, in a post-referendum reality, several constitutional issues have become apparent. On one hand, it is not certain whether the Prime Minister, under the royal prerogatives, can trigger Art. 50 of the EU Treaty. On the other hand, the scope of Westminster’s approval must still be determined. It is believed that the judiciary will end up in a constitutional crisis, especially the Supreme Court. At the very least, the suspension of ‘Brexit’ procedures is causing uncertainty on both sides i.e. UK and EU. This paper will pose some of the essential questions being discussed on the eve of the Supreme Court’s decision over ‘Brexit’ in December of 2016/January of 2017.

Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, competences Parliament sovereignty royal prerogatives, Article 50 of the EU Treaty Brexit

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Author: Jerzy Kuciński
Institution: Społeczna Akademia Nauk w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 72-108
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.04
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3504.pdf

Streszczenie:

Memers of Parliament are together with Sejm in pleno, and parliamentary commissions, one of the entities entitled to control widly understood states government, which consists of: the Counsil of Ministers in gremio, Primeminister, other members of the Counsil of Ministers, as well as central and local organs of governmental administration. The purpose of this work is an analysis of members of Parliament position as parliamentary control entities, according to normative regulations, in particular provisions of Constitution. The above mentioned position consists of following elements: 1) general status of deputy determined by two groups of features: a) in general by position of Sejm in the system of govering bodies in the Republic of Poland, and concept of relation of deputies to electors, b) on the detailed ground by normative acts regulations – The Constitution of The Republic of Poland of 2nd April 1997, Act on performance of deputy, and senators mandate, Sejms regulation; 2) subjective, and objective scope of deputies rights to control governments activity, which is identical with subjective, and objective scope of such control determined in art. 95 of 1997 Constitution; 3) institutions remaining in deputies disposal which aim is control, which are: a) deputies interpellations, b) deputies questions, deputies questions in ongoing matters, d) information in ongoing matters.

informacje bieżące pytania w sprawach bieżących zapytania poselskie interpelacje poselskie status prawny posła, kontrola sejmowa posłowie

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 299-304
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/35/ppk35auth.pdf

Streszczenie:

Author: Kamil Dąbrowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Szcześciński
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 109-121
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.05
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3505.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article discusses the scope of legal responsibility on the part of The President of the Republic of Poland. The lack of precise legal regulations concerning the matter in question leads to the following conclusion: taking into consideration the present prohibitionof implicit immunity the President of the Republic of Poland ought to share the same realm of legal responsibility as do other Polish citizens. Yet, due to the apparent dangers inherent in the execution of the legal responsibility the author proposes for the jurisdiction in question to be under the supervision of the State Tribunal. The author’s argument is founded on the present legal order as well as in numerous functional and language oriented factors. As a consequence, the author claims “the offense” as defined in the 145th article of the Constitution is in reality a general notion for criminal responsibility.

immunitet wykroczenia Prezydent RP

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Author: Izabela Niczyporuk
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 123-136
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.06
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3506.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article presents selected line of jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court with regard to judgments referring to the reliability and efficiency of public institutions. The principle indicated in its title was expressed by Polish constitutional lawmaker in the preamble to the Polish Constitution of 1997. In the introduction, there are identified various positions of doctrine regarding the normative character of the preamble. Due to the lack of a legal definition the author defines the concept of “fairness” and “efficiency”, and “the integrity of the state” and “the efficiency of the state”. This article in its essential part takes into account judgements of the Constitutional Tribunal issued in 2006–2016. Adopted timing is determined by the judgement oth the Tribunal passed in 2006, where the principle of fairness and efficiency has been called the “principle” and where the Court recognised its normative charcter. The judgments are discussed in chronological order. The aim of this article is to show the substantial meaning of the principle of fairness and efficiency of the state which was provided in discussed court cases. The idea is also to draw attention to the Introduction to the Constitution as its important part.

orzecznictwo działanie instytucji publicznych preambuła zasada rzetelności i sprawności Trybunał Konstytucyjny konstytucja

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Author: Marcin Przybysz
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 137-154
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.07
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3507.pdf

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The text contains description and analysis of changes of 2006 and 2009 in the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany concerning legislative powers and financial relations of federation and länder. The text begins with a description of advancing for over 50 years “process of policies’ merging”, described already in seventies of 20th century as a “trap”. Therefore, it was important to try to resolve the problem by two large amendments of the German constitution in 2006 and 2009 (i.e. the 1st and the 2nd reforms of federalism). The author describes assumptions and instruments applied by the first reform, ie. strengthening of legislative competences of the Union and länder, reducing the number of cases towards which the Bundesrat may apply the absolute veto, limiting so-called “mixed funding”, making “blocking up” of the Union and the countries through new regulation of matters more difficult by requiring the approval of the Bundesrat, as well as the adjustment of the Basic Law to the challenges of membership of Germany in the European Union. In this context the second reform of federalism was also the subject of analysis. The reform amended the system of mutual financial relations of the Union and countries and introduced a so-called “debt brake” (Schuldenbremse) but also limited some solutions which had been introduced three years before.

hamulec długów finanse publiczne reformy prawodawstwo landy, Związek Ustawa Zasadnicza federalizm Niemcy

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Author: Rafał Czachor
Institution: Uczelnia Jana Wyżykowskiego w Poklowicach
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 155-172
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.08
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3508.pdf

Streszczenie:

Local self-government in the Republic of Belarus is an institution of constitutional law. It declares functioning of institutions of direct and indirect democracy. The aim of following paper is to describe legal aspects of institutions of direct democracy in the system of local self-government in Belarus including local referendum, local assembly and territorial social self-government. It discusses also problems in implementation of direct democracy mechanisms, relating this with the specificity of nondemocratic political regime in contemporary Belarus.

Republika Białoruś samorząd lokalny demokracja bezpośrednia

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Author: Michał Zbigniew Dankowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 173-187
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.09
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3509.pdf

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The problem of capitals is often marginalized however, not always regulations referring to capitals are clearly defined. The constitution of Spain allows the autonomous regions (which the country is divided into) to designate their capitals themselves. Most regions regulate the problem of capitals in their Statue of Autonomy, or refers to other resolutions of the local parliament. Often the term “capital” is not used. Instead, the city that will host the autonomy institution is indicated. In most cases there is no doubt about the city which should hold the capital function in the autonomy. However there are exceptions to this rule. For example in Galicia a serious conflict took place in course of designation of the capital. The same is still happening in Castilla and León. This autonomy, as well as The Basque Country, has no clear regulation regarding to the capital city, which is the cause of many local political crises.

stołeczność stolica Konstytucja Hiszpanii Statut Autonomiczny autonomia Hiszpania

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Author: Piotr Kapusta
Institution: Uniwersytet Zielonogórski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 189-207
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.10
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3510.pdf

Streszczenie:

Ths work shows specific character of anglo – saxon model of self government with particular emhasise of its distinguishing characteristic in comparison to selfgovenments of other EU Memberstates. The Author presented specific legal regulations existing in the capital of United Kingdom – the city of London. Presented analysis refers also to reasons of reforms of selfgovernments organization undertaken at the end of XX century.

samorząd terytorialny burmistrz Zgromadzenie Władza Wielkiego Londynu burmistrz Londynu

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Author: Kamil Stępniak
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 209-224
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.11
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3511.pdf

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Meaning of the principles of legislative techniques (PLT) and the principles of proper legislation (PPL) should be regarded as a key to the process of lawmaking. These rules are often a guarantee for the protection of human rights. The principles of good legislation are inferred by the Constitutional Court of Art. 2 of the Polish Constitution (the democratic rule of law). The principles of legislative techniques are included in the Annex to the Regulation of the Prime Minister Council of Ministers dated on 20 June 2002 on the principles of legislative technique. The paper presents a characteristics of both disciplines taking into account their specificity and historical background. It was also shown that by joint application of PPL and PLT and their inseparable correlation legislator may establish acts that will guarantee the protection of human rights and will protect the interests of the State. The Author also identified benefits which derive form joint application of both sets of legislative rules and principles.

ochrona praw człowieka prawo konstytucyjne legislacja zasady prawidłowej legislacji Zasady techniki prawodawczej Trybunał Konstytucyjny

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 3-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/35/ppk35toc.pdf

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Author: Sebastian Kubas
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Author: Monika Florczak-Wątor
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 261-298
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/35/ppk3517.pdf

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Wspomnienie o Profesorze Pawle Sarneckim

Profesor Paweł Sarnecki był osobą, pod której opieką rozpoczynaliśmy naszą uczelnianą i naukową drogę, więc był dla nas po prostu „Profesorem”. Ten identyfikujący Go jednoznacznie tytuł stosowaliśmy zarówno w sensie naukowym, jak i emocjonalnym, oznaczającym człowieka nam bliskiego. Paweł Sarnecki urodził się w Kielcach, 17 marca 1939 r. Było to pierwsze z ważnych dla Profesora miejsc, z którym pozostał związany przez całe życie. W Kielcach dorastał i tam też ukończył renomowane I Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Stefana Żeromskiego. Z tego rodzinnego miasta wyjechał następnie do Krakowa na studia prawnicze, choć z uwagi na relacje rodzinne nadal często w Kielcach bywał. Wracał także do Kielc jako wykładowca, uczący kolejne pokolenia zagadnień z szeroko rozumianego prawa publicznego. Wiele lat współpracował bowiem z kieleckimi uczelniami: najpierw z Wyższą Szkołą Administracji Publicznej, a następnie z Wyższą Szkołą Ekonomii, Prawa i Nauk Medycznych im. Edwarda Lipińskiego.

Author: Agnieszka Gajda
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 11-28
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.01
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3601.pdf

Streszczenie:

The main purpose of this paper is to present the important aspects of management control over polish common courts. This type of control has been introduced by the Act on common courts system as a kind of administrative supervision over common courts and has been entrusted to the Minister of Justice. The Author of this paper deliberates what the management control is and what the character and duties of the director of a common court are in this process. The Author also describes differences in legal nature between the notice of the Minister of Justice, and the notice of the Minister of Finance. They both are issued in the process of management control, but their actual impact on common courts is different.

sądy powszechne nadzór administracyjny Ministra Sprawiedliwości dyrektor sądu komunikat Ministra Sprawiedliwości kontrola zarządcza

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Author: Marcin Dąbrowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 29-54
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.02
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3602.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article consists of few parts. At the beginning, the author discusses a definition of interpretative verdicts and a history of the dispute between The Supreme Court and the Constitutional Tribunal over this kind of judgments. The author doesn’t present arguments that are described in literature but climes that the dispute concernes three problems: legality of interpretative verdicts, their binding force and interpretative verdicts as a base for reopening proceedings. In the second part, two arguments against delivering interpretative verdicts are formed. The author claims that the Constitutional Tribunal should limit a number of such judgments because there is no legal ground for interpretative verdicts in the Constitution and because they abridge independence of judges of the Supreme Court and other courts. In the last part of the article, the author describes a genetic cause of the litigation between the Tribunal and courts. It is claimed that the dispute has been generated by dissentions between methods of interpretation of legal acts used by the Tribunal and the Supreme Court. The Tribunal takes advantage of the method of derivation and the Supreme Court usually uses the method of clarification. These methods are in contrary to each other and because of this they are the base of the dispute.

koncepcje wykładni prawa wykładnia prawa wyroki interpretacyjne spór Sąd Najwyższy Trybunał Konstytucyjny

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 254-259
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/36/ppk36auth

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 3-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/36/ppk36toc.pdf

Streszczenie:

Author: Przemysław Mijal
Institution: Faculty of Law and Administration of the University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 55-66
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.03
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3603.pdf

Streszczenie:

The institution of amicus curiae, commonly found in common law systems, has not yet reached a comprehensive analysis in Polish law. Despite the existing and slowly developing practice of bringing a court friend’s opinion within the Polish procedural rules, it is impossible to find expressis verbis regulations for the amicus curiae institution. This points to the need to undertake a scientific discourse on this subject, in particular its location among the applicable rules relating to the procedure before courts and tribunals. The study of the subject of the search for legal connotations aimed at reconstructing the characteristics of the amicus curiae is part of this study. The author’s intention is to define the position of a “friend of the court” in proceedings before the Constitutional Tribunal, the criteria for admission to the case and the determination of his or her legal position and the scope of entitlements.

udział organizacji pozarządowych w postępowaniu przed Trybunałem Konstytucyjnym wpływ opinii amicus curiae na orzecznictwo postępowanie przed Trybunałem Konstytucyjnym opinia przyjaciela sądu opinia amicus curiae

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Author: Artur Ławniczak
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 67-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.04
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3604.pdf

Streszczenie:

The problem of the position of judicature in the structures of state power and justiciary’s identity is important. Judicial power generally is less inclined for changes than the rest of state’s machinery. In the effect it’s possible the appearance of impression of its axiologic and historiozofic preponderance over more connected with Time’s Spirit legislative and executive. So arises the temptation for strengthening of Third Power as more resistant for errors and distortions. However, it is probably an illusion, because justiciary is too strongly connected with statehood, so the hope for resistance of many good ancient values in the corp of judiciary is deceptive.

nomokracja judykatura demokracja

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Author: Jakub Grzegorz Firlus
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Author: Natalie Fox
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 85-105
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.05
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3605.pdf

Streszczenie:

Efficiency as well as efficacy of courts proceedings seems to be vital factor for both society and economic growth. However, legal infrastructure and two-instance proceedings cause backlogs. This is to say lack of court efficiency is to some extend related to the shape of legal remedies; yet constitutional pedigree of given principles consequently broadens the scope of further modifications. Therefore, lawmakers are searching for optimal model of two-instance proceedings. Within wide spectrum of given solutions one will be the subject of this paper i.e. so-called “flattening” of court instance. Especially, authors tried to determine whether modifications of court instance are proper remedy for achieving lesser caseload.

szybkość postępowania instancja środek prawny postępowanie sądowoadministracyjne postępowanie administracyjne

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 261-266
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/37/ppk37auth.pdf

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/37/ppk37toc.pdf

Streszczenie:

Author: Bartłomiej Michalak
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 9-29
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.01
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3701.pdf

Streszczenie:

The institution of election silence as well as its scope has been a subject of debates and controversies for years. Supporters of election silence underline its moderating and anticoaxing character. The opponents point to inveterate breaching of its rules, particularly on the Internet. For all that, the institution of election silence serves some political and social purposes and imperfections of its execution do not have to perforce undermine its merits. The aim of the present paper is to analyse legal solutions concerning election silence that have been implemented around the world and that constitute sundry models of this institution. Comparing them allows for identifying universal solutions and areas worth reforming.

kodeks wyborczy cisza sondażowa cisza referendalna cisza wyborcza

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Author: Grzegorz Maroń
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 31-51
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.02
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3702.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper deals with the notion of ceremonial deism, as it is understood in U.S. case law and jurisprudence. This term describes on kind of the government’s acts of symbolic references to God or religion, for example words „under God” in Pledge of Allegiance or the national motto – „In God We Trust”. American courts hold that particular forms of ceremonial deism are in accordance with the Establishment Clause due to their lack of a religious meaning (secularization thesis), nonsectarian nature, secular aims, historicity, ubiquity and non-controversiality. In the Author’s view, the above mentioned understanding of ceremonial deism is not fully proper. He calls on the rejection of secularization thesis and premise of non-sectarian nature. According to him, the public authorities’ acts of religious references are compliant with the Constitution when they perform significant secular aims, they do not have a devotional character and they constitute a testimony to the history and tradition of a particular country and its citizens. The criteria of ubiquity and non-controversiality may, due to its highly evaluative and subjective character, serve only a supportive role within the verification of the legality of a prima facie religious expression acts of the state. Theory of ceremonial deism, being understood properly, may constitute a valuable tool to evaluate the constitutionality of the public authority’s actions, also outside the United States.

rozdział kościoła od państwa ceremonialny deizm orzecznictwo USA

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Author: Jarosław Szymanek
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 53-95
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.03
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3703.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article presents the background of the ideological formation of the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The starting point is the assumption that the state reform made in 1958 had its origin in the crisis internally and in the international environment of France. The internal crisis was associated with political instability, and above all very strong position of Parliament and the chaotic party system. The external environment, in turn, is the collapse of the international role of France and the problems of decolonization, particularly in Algeria. The article presents the political thought of traditionally perceived as the creators of the Constitution 1958. These include André Tardieu, Raymond Carré de Malberg, Rene Capitanta, Michel Debré and Charles de Gaulle. Article proves that they did not have identical ideas that sometimes their views have evolved. Ultimately, however, they contributed to a coherent political thought, which began gaullism, and in the sense of the political system laid the foundation for the constitution of the Fifth Republic. Keywords for this political thought are the rear of the political system in the background values, among which is crucial idea of a strong state; recognition of the necessity to balance the authorities; visibility of the role of the president is perceived, like the military, as chef of state.

reforma państwa gaullizm V Republika myśl polityczna konstytucja

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Author: Grzegorz Kowalski
Institution: Prokuratura Rejonowa w Tomaszowie Lubelskim
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 97-119
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.04
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3704.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article brings up issues of the removing V. Janukovych from power by Ukrainian parliament in February 2014. For that reason resolutions from that period passed by Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (concerning divesting V. Janukovych of president’s power) were discussed, particularly Resolution on February 22nd, 2014 on Self-Removal of the president of Ukraine from his Constitutional Authority and Early Elections of the president of Ukraine. Thorough analysis of Ukrainian parliament’s resolutions mentioned above in the light of legally binding Ukrainian Constitution at that time, judicial decisions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine and literature, leads to conclusion, that the divesting V. Janukovych of power by Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine occurred with violation of the Fundamental Law of Ukraine, first of all, principles of: people’s sovereignty, state power division, rule of law and supremacy of Constitution, legality of acting of bodies of state power, ban of state power usurpation, too. This analysis proves an assumption made in the article that Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine divested the Ukrainian president of power unlawfully.

podział władzy, uzurpacja władzy Konstytucja Ukrainy Rada Najwyższa Ukrainy prezydent

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Author: Dominika Tykwińska-Rutkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 107-131
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.06
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3606.pdf

Streszczenie:

The main purpose of this article is to present some of the formalized instruments of judicial interpretation of administrative law by administrative courts. There are no doubts that administrative courts take part in the process of interpretation of administrative law by using different means. The most popular instrument is a court judgment – court interprets law for the purpose of issuing a decision. The administrative courts’ participation in the interpretation of law should be also linked to the Supreme Administrative Court’s resolutions. No matter which of the described formalized instruments of the interpretation of law is used by administrative courts, the outcome of the interpretation process contributes to the development of non-codified administrative law and its science.

wskazania co do dalszego postępowania ocena prawna uchwały NSA wyroki sądów administracyjnych sformalizowane instrumenty wykładni prawa wykładnia prawa administracyjnego wykładnia prawa

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Author: Małgorzata Grzesik-Kulesza
Institution: University of Rzeszow
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 133-143
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.07
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3607.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Bank of Poland was established for the first time as an independent public institution by the royal order from 1828. The main task of the newly established institution was to meet the public debt and the expansion of trade, money lending and national industry. The rules concerning the functioning and activities of the bank emphasized a close relationship of the Bank with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Treasury and Revenue ensuring the independence and integrity of its members – which accounted for innovative legal solutions pointing to the need of protecting the institution from the influence on the part of external entities. In the sphere of the state treasury service, the Bank of Poland played an important role in the years 1828–1885, although in the last 15 years its role in the functioning of the national economy was negligible.

state economy treasury the public debt The Polish Bank

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Author: Szymon Osowski
Institution: Sieć Obywatelska Watchdog Polska
Author: Bartosz Wilk
Institution: Sieć Obywatelska Watchdog Polska
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 145-160
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.08
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3608.pdf

Streszczenie:

The text presents an analysis of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights concerning art. 10 paragraph 1 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. On the basis of selected judgments of the Court relating to article. 10 paragraph. 1 of the Convention in so far as guaranteed in the provision of “freedom to receive and impart information without interference by public authority”, this article presents the evolution of the case law of the Strasbourg Court. These considerations led to reconstruct jurisprudence standard of the European Court of Human Rights regarding the right to public information. The authors referre to the standard of protection of the right to public information guaranteed by the Polish Constitution and conclude that it cannot justify the thesis that the standard of protection of the right to information is higher in the Polish Constitution.

prawo do informacji wolność otrzymywania i przekazywania informacji informacja publiczna

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Author: Filip Radoniewicz
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 161-174
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.09
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3609.pdf

Streszczenie:

The purpose of this paper is the presentation of some selected issues connected with the right to a fair trial (the right to court, the right to legal proceedings), which is a key element of human rights protection and serves to provide procedural means to safeguard the rule of law. The right to a fair trial is generally guaranteed in acts of international law and in democratic constitutions. The Author of this paper compares regulations of this issue in the European Convention on Human Rights, in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. Because of the extent of the presented subject, article was divided into two parts – the first one, which contains the introduction to the subject of the right to a fair trial and the analysis of this issue in the European Convention on Human Rights and the second part, which presents the regulation of the right to a fair trial in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.

Europejska Konwencja Praw Człowieka prawo do rzetelnego procesu sądowego prawo do sądu

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Author: Maciej Berek
Institution: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli
Source: Show
Pages: 175-189
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.10
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3610.pdf

Streszczenie:

Since 2012 all Polish official journals have been published only in electronic (digital) version which means that all published acts must be prepared and signed in electronic (digital) way as well. The article presents the history of law amendments which are legal basis of the adopted reform. During parliamentary procedure on the bill regarding the reform some critical opinions were presented. Author of the article argues with these opinions. Results of implemented reform are analysed in the article – practical aspects but first of all legal ones related with a right to access to law and authenticity and credibility of the published legal acts.

elektroniczna publikacja dzienniki urzędowe dostęp do prawa publikacja prawa political science ppsy

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Author: Justyna Węgrzyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Zielonogórski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 191-205
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.11
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3611.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article refers to the constitutional guarantee of the patient’s right to information, as well as the Integrated Patient Handbook. The author presents the objective scope of IPH, and also subjective scope, showing at the same time, the problems in practice, that appeared on the background of the access to the information in this system.

Zintegrowany Informator Pacjenta dane osobowe konstytucyjne prawo do informacji

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Author: Sylwia Stecko
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 207-218
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.02.12
PDF: ppk/36/ppk3612.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article covers the considerations on the protection of marriage and the family in the light of the Polish Constitution. It aims to present the good of the family and its protection in the light of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997. It can be reasonably assumed that marriage and the family are the values that occupy a special position in the hierarchy of constitutional values so that they are under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland. Each family – complete, incomplete or without children – is subject to protection. The task of the State is to protect the rights of the family, that is to create such conditions in which members of the family will be able to exercise human rights, to which they are entitled by the virtue of belonging to the family. The public authorities in their actions should support the family in the performance of its social features, but in a way that is subtle without excessive interference in the sphere of family life.

rodzina małżeństwo prawo

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Author: Magdalena Micińska
Institution: Kujawsko-Pomorska Szkoła Wyższa w Bydgoszczy
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 121-139
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.05
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3705.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of this article is the general characteristics of the legal status of associations in Russia. They include the origin of association movement, overview of current legal sources, basic terms, and discussion of selected regulations limiting the right to association, with particular emphasis on law of 20 July 2012 on organizations fulfilling the function of a foreign agent and law of 23 May 2015 on undesirable organizations on the territory of the RF. This paper also highlights the political aspect of the origin, shaping and transformation of the legal position of associations. The legal status of associations in Russia is always linked to the political situation in the country. Constitutional traditions of Tsarist and Soviet Russia were not conducive to bottom-up self-organization of society and only perestroika in the late 80s enabled unrestrained participation in public life. Currently in Russia, there are over 101 thousand registered social associations and undoubtedly it is a record number in the historical context. However, in order to maintain internal security against the growing threat of terrorism, as well as to the risk of the outbreak of the color revolution, in recent years Russia started to re-introduce significant restrictions on the freedom of association. The basic research method is the dogmatic analysis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and selected federal laws. The issue discussed is rarely raised in Polish scientific publications. This paper constitutes an attempt to fill the gap in the subject literature aiming at contributing to the development of scientific knowledge in Polish-Russian comparative studies.

ekstremizm fundacja, „kolorowa rewolucja” organizacja niepożądana agent zagraniczny organizacja pozarządowa stowarzyszenie społeczne ZSRR Imperium Rosyjskie Konstytucja Federacji Rosyjskiej Federacja Rosyjska antyterroryzm

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Author: Sabina Grabowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 141-151
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.06
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3706.pdf

Streszczenie:

The text is an analysis of the Austrian legal regulations concerning the constitutional responsibility of the President. Federal President for committing a constitutional delict is responsible before the Constitutional Court. The proposal in this regard may submit a group of parliamentarians and parliament puts indictment. If the Constitutional Court decides the merits of allegations made in the indictment, the president shall be deposited with the office.

odpowiedzialność prezydenta delikt konstytucyjny konstytucja

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Author: Filip Radoniewicz
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 153-168
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.07
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3707.pdf

Streszczenie:

The purpose of this paper is the presentation of some selected issues connected with the right to a fair trial (the right to court, the right to legal proceedings), which is a key element of human rights protection and serves to provide procedural means to safeguard the rule of law. The right to a fair trial is generally guaranteed in acts of international law and in democratic constitutions. The Author of this paper compares regulations of this issue in the European Convention on Human Rights, in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. Because of the extent of the presented subject, article was divided into two parts – the first one, which contains the introduction to the subject of the right to a fair trial and the analysis of this issue in the European Convention on Human Rights and the second part, which presents the regulation of the right to a fair trial in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.

Karta Praw Podstawowych Europejska Konwencja Praw Człowieka prawo do sądu bezpośrednie stosowanie konstytucji

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Author: Jarosław Skowyra
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 169-183
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.08
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3708.pdf

Streszczenie:

This contribution presents issue connected to implementation of the constitutional principle of equality and prohibition of discrimination within Act of 4 November 2016 on the support of pregnant women and families „For life”. Author brings regulations concluded in the content of the indicated act closer, thereafter he performs a presentation of the principle of equality and prohibition of discrimination, with an aid of jurisdiction and doctrine standpoints. Final part of contribution consists confrontation between mentioned principle and pointed prohibition with this part of the „For Life” Act, which sketch presumptions allowing to apply for one time benefit, in the amount of 4 000 zloty, for giving birth to alive child, who were diagnosed with severe and irreversible impairment or with incurable illness endangering their life, under a condition that woman would stay under medical healthcare no later than from 10th week of pregnancy till labour.

ustawa „za życiem” zakaz dyskryminacji zasada równości implementacja konstytucja

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Author: Ilona Szczepańska-Kulik
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 185-204
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.09
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3709.pdf

Streszczenie:

Submitted study is an attempt to analyze the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of the freedom of economic activity and its limitations. Both in literature and in the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Tribunal it is accepted that the constitutional freedom of economic activity is not absolute and must be subject to restrictions. In cases brought before the constitutional court there are cited rules in different configurations. In this text the author wants to expand the subject issue and to discuss various conditions that limit freedom of economic activity (which are: important public interest, statutory form and the requirement of the principle of proportionality).

ograniczenia wolności działalności gospodarczej wolność działalności gospodarczej Trybunał Konstytucyjny konstytucja

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Author: Katarzyna Tomaszewska
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 205-241
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.03.10
PDF: ppk/37/ppk3710.pdf

Streszczenie:

The access to public knowledge, which is the result of the common right to information, is a fundamental issue of modern times. It provides interested parties with information about public affairs. It creates a place for communication and joint determination of issues that are relevant to society as a whole. On this level, it is an institution of social control, which includes the sphere of public procurement. This paper is devoted to determining legally guaranteed forms and methods of its implementation (realization of access to public information, and thus the control process).

zasada jawności kontrola społeczna ochrona interesu dostęp do informacji zamówienia publiczne

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 273-278
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/38/ppk38auth.pdf

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 3-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/38/ppk38toc.pdf

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Author: Adam Tokarski
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 11-28
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.01
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3801.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article deals with a conception of the head of state while working on the March Constitution. The first part presents motives for adopting a republican form of the future system of Poland and describes draft constitutions drawn up by the Constitutional Bureau of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers. The second part presents characteristics of a political status of the head of state in the draft of the so-called “Survey,” the draft of W. Wakar as well as the governmental “Constitutional Declaration” and the draft of the Popular National Union. Moreover, it describes controversies connected with the titles of “Chief” and “President.” The third part presents a description of views on the head of state revealed during the works of the Constitutional Committee as well as in the second draft drawn up by the Council of Ministers, along with amendments made by the Skulski’s government. The last, 4th part discusses causes which influenced the final shape of the office of President in the March Constitution.

Naczelnik Państwa Projekty Konstytucji prezydent głowa państwa

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Author: Magdalena Wrzalik
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 29-44
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.02
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3802.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 granted the President of the Republic of Poland the right to order a nationwide referendum on issues of special importance for the state. Managing such a referendum is not made by the President of the Republic of Poland alone but requires the consent of the Senate in the form of a resolution. In Poland, after the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland in 1997, the institution of the referendum was to use only three times. The last referendum, which is the subject of the analysis was ordered on September 6, 2015. The problem of ordering a referendum by the President of the Republic of Poland, although seemingly obvious, gave birth to a number of practical problems – interpretation used the term “cases of special importance for the country,” judicial supervision of constitutionality and legality of the referendum, the correctness of the formulation of the referendum question.

kodeks wyborczy prawo wyborcze wybory demokracja bezpośrednia referendum

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Author: Klaudia Zawiślak
Institution: Polska Akademia Nauk
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 45-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.03
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3803.pdf

Streszczenie:

The institution of legislative initiative is a key element of the legislative process, because it starts legislative works. This concept has been widely discussed in the doctrine of constitutional law and it is a reason why in this article has been paid special attention to the pre-legislative stage. An attempt was made to distinguish the concept of the legislative inspiration from the legislative initiative. Basic features of a legislative initiative have been identified on the basis of constitutional provisions. Entities and ways to inspire the relevant bodies (which are able to bring a draft of the bill to the Sejm) have been determined under the provisions of various laws.

etap prelegislacyjny ustawa proces legislacyjny inicjatywa ustawodawcza inspiracja ustawodawcza

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Author: Joanna Szponar-Seroka
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 67-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.04
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3804.pdf

Streszczenie:

Ownership protection is one of the rights in the political system of the Republic of Poland. Article 21 of the Constitution safeguards ownership protection in general. Other property rights also seem to be protected on the basis of that general provision such as the ones resulting from Article 64 of the Constitution. Although the obligation of legal ownership protection is vested mainly in the state authorities, other entities, including private ones, are also obliged to comply. The right to property is not absolute and in accordance with Article 64 “may only be limited by means of a statute” but only to the extent not violating its substance. What seems worth considering in this context is the issue of limitations of the procurement of the agricultural real estate as well as liberalization of the provisions concerning tree removal.

prawo własności ochrona własności konstytucja

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Author: Thomas Würtenberger
Institution: Uniwersytet Albert-Ludwigs we Freiburgu
Author: Jan Wiktor Tkaczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 85-100
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.05
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3805.pdf

Streszczenie:

It is hard not to admit that, the development of contemporary society results (or at least it shall result) in changes of state’s functioning. This trival statement, as for scientific discovery, has far – reaching implications for understanding in contemporary world the position of democratic state based on the rule of law. It is impossible not to see that since the French Revolution the state is under sustained transformations, which in such a deep scale were not observed in previous centuries. Without going into considerations on the modern statehood course, it is worth – when focus on institutional changes – bear in mind what consists of state’s administrative identity in relation with it’s citizens. In this context – how it is shaped and how take place the fulfilment of representative democracy with elements such as citizen’s participation and responsiveness. For easier, faster, and the most important – more effective, way of reaction on new threats and civilization challenges. Which – without any doubts there will be no lack of abovementioned ones in forthcoming years.

niemieckie prawo administracyjne i konstytucyjne

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 301-306
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/39/ppk39auth.pdf

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Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 3-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppk/39/ppk39toc.pdf

Streszczenie:

Author: Radosław Grabowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 11-21
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.01
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3901.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article is an attempt to identify the constitutional authorities of Poland, whose functioning can be improved through the application of solutions operating in other countries. The change in the way the Senate is elected is seen as an opportunity to improve the quality of the statutes passed in Poland. The appointment of the vice president is to improve the functioning of the office of the President of the Republic and to make him independent of the parliament. Entrusting the constitutional review of the law to the Supreme Court can contribute to the depoliticization of this process. A similar effect can be attained in the case of constitutional responsibility, provided that its common courts are enforced.

dwuizbowość wiceprezydent instytucje obce Prezydent RP odpowiedzialność konstytucyjna kontrola konstytucyjności Senate

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Author: Artur Olechno
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 23-36
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.02
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3902.pdf

Streszczenie:

An article dedicated to semantic methods of defining of competitive norms in selected constitutions of Eastern European countries. The principle of legality requires public authorities to act solely on the basis of the applicable law and within the limits defined by them. This means the state body does only what the law expressly permits, and anything else not explicitly stated in the legal provision is prohibited. Therefore, it is very important the legislator speaks deliberately and precisely the legal language. The legislator must avoid a blurred notion and such, that allow for interpretative freedom in normative acts. Taking into account that all legislative activities we perceive to be non-accidental, each legal regulation should have a meaning that makes it impossible to make “arbitrary” decisions.

kompetencje semantyka Europa Wschodnia konstytucja

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Author: Sławomir Patyra
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 37-53
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.03
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3903.pdf

Streszczenie:

The purpose of this article is critical analysis of polish model of the government, adopted in the Constitution of 2nd April 1997, in the bearing of adopted factors of the rationalization. The key assumption of this article is to proof, that the legal constructions, reffered in the Constitution of 2nd April 1997, in the relation to political practice, don’t satisfy the conditions, typical for the ratinalized parliamentarism in its classical versions, for example in the Constitution of the Fifth French Republic of 1958 and in the 1949 Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany.

model władzy wykonawczej zracjonalizowany parlamentaryzm praktyka polityczna system rządów

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Author: Ryszard Balicki
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 55-68
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.04
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3904.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Polish executive governance model assumes the existence of a two-part executive, in which the strength of the government lies in its constitutional competences and the power of the president is legitimized by his being selected in general elections. Such situation creates a space for conflict between the highest authorities. It is therefore worth to consider the desirability of making changes in the Polish governance model in the future and introducing into the system of governance a model based on the German system of chancellery governance.

model kanclerski nowelizacja konstytucji konstytucja system rządów

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Author: Anna Rakowska-Trela
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 69-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.05
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3905.pdf

Streszczenie:

Elections and its organization is a very important issue in democratic countries. Legislative shall look for interesting models in other countries. In Spanish and South American laws we can find some inspiring solutions in the fields like: electoral administration, external voting, electoral campaign, the day of general election, counting of votes. For sure those solutions take into consideration the peculiarity of particular countries, but can be a good inspiration for Polish legislative.

administracja wyborcza kampania wyborcza wybory konstytucja

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Author: Andrzej Jackiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 85-100
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.06
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3906.pdf

Streszczenie:

Of the numerous direct democracy instruments present in the Latvian Satversme, one of the most interesting solutions is the mechanism of a referendum concerning dissolution of the parliament, initiated by the head of state. A spectacular, and so far the only, example of application of this mechanism was the referendum held on 23 July 2011, as a result of which the Latvian Saeima was dissolved. The article analyzes the constitutional provisions that define this form of direct democracy, taking into account the Latvian political practice. The article focuses on the application of this institution in 2011 and emphasizes the associated social and political conditions. On the background of the Latvian constitutional and political system, in particular the mutual relations between the President of the State and the Saeima, the article presents the importance of this instrument to the Latvian political system and an evaluation of its potential with regard to the system of government.

rozwiązanie parlamentu Łotwa parlament, prezydent referendum

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Author: Marta Breichová Lapčáková
Institution: Uniwersytet Pawła Juzefa Szafarika w Koszycach, Słowacja
Author: Grzegorz Chmielewski
Institution: Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Nysie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 101-132
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.06
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3806.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article gives a comprehensive overview of the issues of sources of law in the Slovak Republic. It describes the different types of sources of law of Slovak Republic and their constitutional and legal regulation and also focuses on the analysis of the critical moments of constitutional and legislative process. The text explains the basic form of the national legal system, which in the traditional terms takes the form of a pyramid, the top of which are the Constitution and constitutional acts. This traditional concept is confronted with the current development of relations of the systems of international law, European law and national law, on the background of the theory of inter – system legal pluralism. The article is focused on the definition of the status of international treaties in the legal order of the Slovak Republic, with particular emphasis on the status of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the European Union. For this purpose the relevant case-law of the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic is demonstrated, and the issue of the concept of the relationship between the national law of the Slovak Republic and the European Union is raised. The unspoken material core of the Constitution of the Slovak Republic is to be considered as a criterion of recognition of the principle of the primacy of European Union law.

prawo krajowe Republika Słowacka źródła prawa

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Author: Justyna Ciechanowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Author: Katarzyna Szwed
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 133-150
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.07
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3807.pdf

Streszczenie:

Funding of political parties in Estonia is determined mainly by the Political Parties Act enacted in 1994. It was amended many times and the last meaningful modifications were introduced in 2014. The act assumes a diversification of the financing sources and allows parties to be financed from allocations from the state budget, donations given by a natural persons, membership fees, transactions with the property of the political parties as well as loans. It is worth mentioning that clarity and transparency principles of political parties’ funding are guaranteed by an operation of the independent supervisory body – Estonian Party Funding Supervision Committee.

Estońska Komisja Nadzoru Finansowania Partii źródła finansowania finansowanie partie polityczne Estonia

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Author: Marta Woźniak
Institution: Uniwersytet Opolski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 151-173
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.08
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3808.pdf

Streszczenie:

The subject matter of this article is the construction of the public interest and the public good in the administrative law presented against the background of the constitutional principle of the common good. The article puts forward a research thesis: the constitutional principle of the common good is the axiological basis for shaping by the administration of the public interest and the granting of certain public goods to the public. Concepts included in the title of the study are semantically close, but it is not reasonable to put an equality sign between them. Common good is an ideological superstructure in the public interest, as evidenced by the presence of a constitutional principle of common good in the definitions of public administration. As a consequence, the common good must be assumed to be a general clause defining a correct understanding of the public interest as well as the scope of public goods in administrative law.

dobro wspólne dobro publiczne interes publiczny

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Author: Dominika Kuźnicka
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 175-194
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.09
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3809.pdf

Streszczenie:

Access to public information is a right that on the basis of the Constitution provides each citizen, and on the basis of the Law on Access to Information publicznej – to everyone irrespective of their citizenship by him. Both the Law on Access to Public Information and its accompanying regulation indicate what conditions must meet the website of the public authority, that it can be considered as a Public Information Bulletin. The parties are often not adapted to the needs of people with disabilities or digitally excluded. It seems that in this case we can speak of a restriction of their right to access to public information. To overcome the barriers that previously existed for access to public information of persons with disabilities, established a series of regulations aimed at ensuring web accessibility for people with disabilities. At the same time it seems that the measures taken are not sufficient or are not sufficiently used and do not provide full accessibility of public administration websites visually impaired and partially sighted.

interoperacyjność niepełnosprawność wykluczenie cyfrowe dostęp do informacji informacja

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Author: Sylwia Stecko
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Source: Show
Pages: 195-206
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.10
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3810.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article covers the considerations on the issues related to the constitutional right to education in the family. It aims to present the nature and extent of the constitutional rights of parents in the process of raising a child while taking into account the international standards applicable in this area. On the basis of the material gathered it can be reasonably assumed that it is the parents in the first place that should provide conditions necessary for the proper development of the child. The responsibility of the state is only to assist families who are educationally inefficient both in terms of emotional and substantive support. In summary, the purpose of a wide variety of assistance offered by the state is first of all to restore family capabilities to its independent and proper functioning.

dobro dziecka wychowanie w rodzinie prawo

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Author: Katarzyna Łobos
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 207-230
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.11
PDF: ppk/38/ppk3811.pdf

Streszczenie:

The subject of this article is the issue of the constitutional right of citizens to social security when reaching the retirement age. The author points out the constitutional principles which guarantee the protection of pension benefits and gives examples of statements of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Tribunal with respect to the issue of social security schemes in their judgments. This article also discusses the scope of freedom which the Constitution grants to a legislator and the boundaries within which a legislator may act as far as the selection of solutions for the implementation of this right is concerned.

zasady konstytucyjne wiek emerytalny ubezpieczenia społeczne ochrona konstytucyjna zabezpieczenie społeczne Trybunał Konstytucyjny Konstytucja RP

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Author: Marcin M. Wiszowaty
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 101-125
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.07
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3907.pdf

Streszczenie:

There is no universal regulatory model of parliamentary ethics. The issues of parliamentary ethics are regulated in various countries by acts of varying degrees, usually statutes and parliamentary standing orders. There are countries where redress for abusive conduct of MPs is subject to general rules such as civil liability. Law in other states provides specific sanctions and means of redress for breach of ethics. Traditional forms of redress, referring to the rules of honor procedure of knighthood and nobility, include various forms of apology: personal, written, in mass media, and a particularly interesting type of apologies – to the whole parliament (chambers) as an offended “person”. The inter-war history of the Polish parliament provides an interesting example of an honorary court institution that dealt with cases of offence of one member by the other and the marshal’s court – gathering in case of the violation of the honor of a member by a non-parliamentarian. The honorary court survived until the first years of the communist period. Since 1997, there has been a parliamentary commission in the Polish Parliament, whose mode of operation and system of sanctions’ apply – does not meet its task. The aim of this article is to propose innovative and restorative changes in the area of the subject matter in Poland -- first of all – the restoration of court of Honour and the introduction of an apology from MPs and Senators for breach of ethics.

senator poseł senat prawo parlamentarne nagana upomnienie przeprosiny sąd marszałkowski sąd honorowy komisja etyki etyka parlamentarna Sejm

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Author: Konrad Składowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 127-141
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.08
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3908.pdf

Streszczenie:

Croatian parliamentary law predicts institution of assistant of a deputy. Article is sacrificed analysis of this institution and practice in using it. Regulations of the constitution, electoral regulations and rules of the parliament have been analysied. Especially procedure of election deputies and rules of the incompatibilitas parliamentary mandate. Parliamentary practice in Croatia suggest that the most often cause of suspension an election mandate is becoming a minister in the government.

chorwackie prawo parlamentarne incompatibilitas zastępca deputowanego system wyborczy

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Author: Krzysztof Eckhardt
Institution: WSPiA Rzeszowska Szkoła Wyższa
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 143-165
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.09
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3909.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article discusses the function of early termination of the Parliamentary term consisting of searching for the most effective Parliamentary majority. It was presented in the light of regulations adopted in constitutional law of Ukraine. A mark of lack of positive majority is usually the inability of the Parliament to create the new government. The Constitution of Ukraine provides one more criterion. There was introduced, characteristic only for this state, the institution of legal forcing to create the institutionalized coalition of fractions of deputies covering most of the constitutional composition of the Parliament, under threat of dissolving it by President. The author analyses the effectiveness of this solution in the systemic practice of Ukraine.

większość parlamentarna frakcje parlamentarne skrócenie kadencji Konstytucja Ukrainy parlament,

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Author: Agnieszka Gajda
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 167-181
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.10
PDF: ppk/39/ppk3910.pdf

Streszczenie:

The control function of the Sejm does not imply that it has the power to directly control the armed forces. Control powers may be exercised only against certain civilian authorities authorized to control and direct the armed forces, such as the Council of Ministers or the Minister of National Defense. It is the responsibility of the government to ensure the external security of state and the general direction of defense in the country. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic of Poland at the request of the President of the Council of Ministers, only during the time of war. He is subordinated to the President of the Republic of Poland. That implies the existence of subordinated position between those authorities. Therefore, the Author of this paper is wondering whether the right to indictment against of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces to constitutional charges to the Tribunal of State shall be within competences of Sejm. Such competence of the Sejm may be interpreted as a mechanism for assessment of the activity of the President himself, which in the light of the constitutional principles of division of powers is not allowed.

funkcji kontrolna Sejmu Naczelny Dowódca Sił Zbrojnych Trybunał Stanu odpowiedzialność konstytucyjna

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