Author: Edyta Sokalska
E-mail: edyta.sokalska@uwm.edu.pl
Institution: Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0903-7726
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 443-462
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.33
PDF: ppk/57/ppk5733.pdf

In American legal historiography, the debate concerning the exact contours and reforms of the Progressive Era is still ongoing. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the American reform movements tried to match American ideals with the challenges of the times. Although progressive attitudes toward the economy, taxation, foreign policy, labor law, social standards, human rights, women’s suffrage, rapid urbanization and unrestricted immigration highlighted the necessity of reforms, such progress was seen from a variety of perspectives. We may ask the question if American legal thought that time was really progressive. The jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court profoundly influenced the shape of the legal order in economic and labor law. Unfortunately, some decisions were not compatible with the visions of progressive reformers and reflected the ideological attitudes of the justices rather than an aspiration for reform.

Podążając w kierunku rozwoju: progresywizm a orzecznictwo Sądu Najwyższego Stanów Zjednoczonych (wybrane uwagi)

Mająca miejsce w amerykańskiej historiografii debata dotycząca właściwych ram czasowych oraz reform, jakie zostały przedsięwzięte w Erze progresywnej, trwa po dzień dzisiejszy. Organizacje i ruchy reformatorskie, które zintensyfikowały swą działalność w ostatnich dziesięcioleciach XIX w. oraz na początku XX w., dążyły do tego, aby dostosować amerykańskie rozwiązana do ówczesnych wyzwań. Jakkolwiek progresywne podejście do gospodarki, podatków, polityki zagranicznej, prawa pracy, standardów społecznych, praw człowieka, praw wyborczych kobiet, szybkiej urbanizacji czy imigracji bez ograniczeń podkreślały konieczność reform, to jednak progres był rozważany z różnorodnej perspektywy. Czy ówczesna amerykańska myśl prawna oraz orzecznictwo Sądu Najwyższego Stanów Zjednoczonych rozwijały się zgodnie z ideałami tegoż nurtu? Orzecznictwo Sądu Najwyższego Stanów Zjednoczonych w sposób znaczący wpłynęło na porządek prawny w zakresie ekonomii i prawa pracy. Niestety, część decyzji sądu nie była kompatybilna z wizją progresywnych reformatorów, gdyż bardziej odzwierciedlała przekonania ideologiczne sędziów niż ich inklinacje w kierunku reform.

REFERENCES:

  • A Centennial History of the American Administrative State, ed. R.C. Chandler, New York 1987.
  • A Companion to the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, eds. C. McKnight Nichols, N.C. Unger, Malden-Oxford 2017.
  • Abraham H.J., Justices, Presidents and Senators: A History of the United States Supreme Court Appointments from Washington to Clinton, new and revised edn., Lanham 1999.
  • Amar A.R., America’s Constitution. A Biography, New York 2005.
  • Beeby J.M., Ingrassia B.M., Precursors to Gilded Age and Progressive era Reforms, in: A Companion to the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, eds. C. McKnight Nichols, N.C. Unger, Malden-Oxford 2017.
  • Bernstein D.E., Lochner v. New York: A Centennial Retrospective, “Washington University Law Review” 2005, vol. 83.
  • Bernstein D.E., Rehabilitating Lochner: Defending Individual Rights against Progressive Reform, Chicago 2012.
  • Chemerinsky E., The Supreme Court, 1988 Term, Foreword: The Vanishing Constitution, “Harvard Law Review” 1989, vol. 103, No. 1.
  • Contemporary Problems of Human Rights Selected Aspects, eds. M. Mamiński, M. Rzewuski, Warszawa 2019.
  • Donald D.H., Foreword, [in:] R.H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877-1929, New York 1967.
  • Dorr G.M., Segregation’s Science: Eugenics and Society in Virginia, Charlottesville-London 2008.
  • Edwards R., New Spirits: Americans in the “Gilded Age” 1865-1905, 2nd edn., Oxford-New York 2011.
  • Edwards R., Politics, Social Movements, and the Periodization of U.S. History, “The Journal of Gilded Age and Progressive Era” 2009, vol. 8, No. 4.
  • Ely J.W., The Fuller Court: Justices, Rulings and Legacy, Santa Barbara-Denver-Oxford 2003.
  • Friedman B., The Will of the People. How Public Opinion Has Influenced the Supreme Court and Shaped the Meaning of the Constitution, New York 2009.
  • Gendzel G., What the Progressives Had in Common, “The Journal of the Gilded Age andmProgressive Era” 2011, vol. 10, No. 3, DOI: 10.1017/S15377811411000089.
  • Górski G., Sąd Najwyższy Stanów Zjednoczonych do 1930 roku, Lublin 2006.
  • Gould L.L., America in the Progressive Era, 1890-1914, London-New York 2013.
  • Grantham D.W., The Contours of Southern Progressivism, “The American Historical Review” 1981, vol. 86, No. 5.
  • Higginbotham E., Review: In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America by Charles J. McClain, “Law and History Review” 1996, vol. 14, No. 1.
  • Hofstadter R., The Age of Reform, New York 1955.
  • Johnston R., Influential Works about the Gilded and Progressive Era, [in:] A Companion to the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, eds. C. McKnight Nichols, N.C. Unger, Malden-Oxford 2017.
  • Laidler P., Sąd Najwyższy Stanów Zjednoczonych: od prawa do polityki, Kraków 2011.
  • Leonard T.C., Retrospectives: Eugenics and Economics in the Progressive Era, “The Journal of Economic Perspectives” 2005, vol. 19, No. 4.
  • Link A.S., What Happened to the Progressive Movement in the 1920s?, “The American Historical Review” 1959, vol. 64, No. 4.
  • McClain Ch.J., In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America, Berkeley 1994. Murphy W.B., The National Progressive Republican League and the Elusive Quest for Progressive Unity, “The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era” 2009, vol. 8, No. 4.
  • Newman P., Revenge: John Sherman, Russell Alger and the Origins of the Sherman Act, “Public Choice” 2018, vol. 173.
  • Nugent W., Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction, New York 2010.
  • Nye R.B., Midwestern Progressive Politics: A Historical Study of its Origins and Development, 1870-1958, East Lansing 1959.
  • OrloffA.S., Skocpol T., Why not Equal Protection? Explaining the Politics of Public Social Spending in Britain, 1900-1911, and the United States, 1880-1920, “American Sociological Review” 1984, vol. 49, No. 6.
  • Perry E.I., Men Are from the Gilded Age, Women Are from the Progressive Era, “The Journal of Gilded Age and Progressive Era” 2002, vol. 1, No. 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537781400000086.
  • Rhetoric and Reform in the Progressive Era, ed. J.M. Hogan, East Lansing 2003.
  • Rogers D.W., From Common Law to Factory Laws: The Transformation of Workplace Safety Law in Wisconsin before Progressivism, “The American Journal of Legal History” 1995, vol. 39, No. 2.
  • Ruiz G.W., The Ideological Convergence of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, “Presidential Studies Quarterly”1989, vol. 19, No. 1, Part 1: American Foreign Policy for the 1990s and part 2: Wilson and the Progressive Era.
  • Schwartz B., A History of the Supreme Court, New York 1995.
  • Schweber H., Lochner v. New York and the Challenge of Legal Historiography, “Law & Social Inquiry” 2014, vol. 39.
  • Sokalska E., Legal and Political Dimensions of American Federalism: Development and Interpretations, Olsztyn 2018.
  • Sokalska E., The U.S. Supreme Court and the Establishment of the ‘Separate but Equal Doctrine’, [in:] Contemporary Problems of Human Rights Selected Aspects, eds. M. Mamiński, M. Rzewuski, Warszawa 2019.
  • Stigler G., The Origin of the Sherman Act, “Journal of Legal Studies” 1985, vol. 14.
  • Stromquist S., Reinventing “The People”: The Progressive Movement, the Class Problem, and the Origins of Modern Liberalism, Urbana-Chicago 2006.
  • Warren C., The Supreme Court in the United States History, vol. 1, Boston 1922.
  • Wiebe R.H., The Search for Order, 1877-1929, New York 1967.
  • Wright D.S., A Century of the Intergovernmental Administrative State: Wilson’s Federalism, New Deal Intergovernmental Relations, and Contemporary Intergovernmental Management, [in:] A Centennial History of the American Administrative State, ed. R.C. Chandler, New York 1987.

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart