Author: Radosław Grabowski
E-mail: drgrabowski@wp.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3362-7363
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 93-102
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.07
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5207.pdf

Streszczenie:

The political involvement of media may raise doubts, particularly when these are the cas- es of political bias. Many Polish journalists perceive this phenomenon critically and try to counteract it, creating codes of journalistic ethics. Their impact, however, is not com- mon, so they remain ineffective. This problem should be considered while analyzing the Polish constitutional provisions and laws. None of the provisions of the Polish Consti- tution of 1997 does prohibit journalists or media political commitment. Media in Po- land have but to fulfill an important function of informing the sovereign (nation) about all the activities of public authorities. To this end, the legal standards guarantee media freedom of action. Associated with the position of media power is to serve social objec- tives, which is to provide information. Legal norms do not require neutrality, nor do they impose political commitment. It should also be remembered that media are a part of the Polish political system.

stronniczość czwarta władza apolityczność Konstytucja RP z 1997 r. media

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Author: Ryszard Balicki
E-mail: ryszard.balicki@uwr.edu.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9192-908X
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 103-112
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.08
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5208.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article presents one of the institutions of international cooperation of the member states of the European Union – Conference of Parliamentary Committees for Union Af- fairs of Parliaments of the European Union (COSAC). COSAC is an important element of the so-called parliamentary diplomacy. The article presents the reasons for the creation of the Conference and the principles of its functioning, as well as impact on the implementa- tion of the control function of national parliaments in regard to their own executive bodies.

funkcję kontrolna parlamentu parlamenty narodowe COSAC władza wykonawcza Unia Europejska

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Author: Hanna Wiczanowska
E-mail: hanawicz@gmail.com
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0224-3677
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 113-126
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.09
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5209.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of this article is to resolve an issue whether the Article 17 of the European Con- vention on Human Rights (further referred to as ECHR) contradicts the principle of le- gality within the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights (referred to as ECtHR). The significance of the presented topic does not lie solely within the sphere of academic considerations, but remains of great value for ensuring an adequate level of protection within the Strasbourg system. Moreover, the establishment of the boundar- ies of implementation of Article 17 ECHR is crucial for providence of legal certainty for all its addressees: individuals, states and the groups of persons. The author of present- ed paper poses the hypothesis that the manner of practical usage of Article 17 ECHR leads to contradiction of the principle of legality which remains the core for the rule of law concept. The article relies on the legal dogmatic method as well as elements of his- toric and comparative analysis.

zasada rule of law zakaz nadużycia praw legalizm art. 17 EKPC ETPC

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Author: Anna Marcisz-Dynia
E-mail: amarcisz@poczta.onet.eu
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2117-0685
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 127-140
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.10
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5210.pdf

Streszczenie:

The subject of the study is to analyze EU citizens’ right to court in the light of the pro- cedural regulations of the court of Justice and the General Court included in the CJEU Statute and court regulations. The study analyzes also, to a necessary extent, the body of previous judicial decisions of CJEU as well as the provisions of relevant acts of deriv- ative law concerning the issues in question. Considering the complexity of the analyzed subject and the limitations of the size of the present study, the focus was put on ques- tions related to legal aid and rules of representation. Upon through analysis, the study confirms that in proceedings before EU courts EU citizens have limited possibilities in the scope of the capacity to act in legal proceedings, which constitutes one of the most basic factors limiting their right to court.

akty prawa pochodnego Statut TSUE, regulamin Trybunał i Sądu prawo do sądu

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Author: Kamila M. Bezubik
E-mail: kamila.bezubik@uwb.edu.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet w BIałymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2572-334X
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 141-155
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.11
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5211.pdf

Streszczenie:

Members of the Bundestag enjoy parliamentary immunity under the Basic Law. The mem- ber may be held liable or arrested for an offense punishable by criminal law only if the Bundestag permits it and waives the member’s immunity, unless the member is caught red-handed or on the following day. Since the majority rule also applies here, the deci- sion to waive immunity is decided by the governing majority. This raises the question, especially on the part of members of individual opposition parties, to what principles the Bundestag is subject to when deciding whether or not to waive the immunity of a mem- ber of the Bundestag. The Bundestag’s reservation of permission (Genehmigungsvorbe- halt) to conduct criminal proceedings according with the jurisprudence of the Federal Constitutional Court serves primarily the benefit of the parliament as a whole. The sub- jective rights of members of the Bundestag to certain conduct of the Bundestag cannot be derived directly from the Article 46 (2) of the Basic Law. However, pursuant to the second paragraph of Article 46 in conjunction with the second sentence of the Article 38 (1) of the Basic Law, a member of the Bundestag may demand that the Bundestag, deciding whether or not to waive his or her immunity, not be guided by unreasonable and arbitrary motives.

Federalny Sąd Konstytucyjny Regulamin Bundestagu Ustawa Zasadnicza immunitet

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Author: Gabriela Dobrovičová
E-mail: gabriela.dobrovicova@upjs.sk
Institution: Uniwersytet Pavla Jozefa Šafárika w Koszycach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9314-4022
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 157-164
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.12
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5212.pdf

Streszczenie:

This paper analyzes the power of the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (here- inafter only as “Constitutional Court”) to provide legal interpretation of the Constitu- tion or of constitutional acts, to ensure the solution of disputes between governmental bodies applying the Constitution of the Slovak Republic. The analysis of the individual decisions confirms that it is not possible to determine that the purpose of these proceed- ings is fulfilled. The author further states that even after the judgement of the Constitu- tional Court, the appointing powers of the president in cooperation with other consti- tutional bodies remain an open problem.

ogólnie wiążący charakter wykładni wykładnia konstytucji lub aktów konstytucyjnych uprawnienie Sądu Konstytucyjnego Republiki Słowackiej

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Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
E-mail: kawadj@box43.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4201-8028
Author: Michał Dahl
E-mail: dahl.michal@gmail.com
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2803-2648
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 165-183
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.13
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5213.pdf

Streszczenie:

The purpose of this paper is to verify the thesis that the right to vote is one of the most significant fields of Indigenous Peoples Rights’ violations. History of the U.S. relations with Native tribes is a history of broken treaties and promises, including these pertain- ing to voting. It is vital to keep track of issues related to voting rights, not only because of the constantly increasing number of court cases related to this issue, but also several legal initiatives proposed in Congress with the aim to make the right to vote more ap- plicable. The first part of the paper enumerates the main reasons for the denial of In- dian Voting Rights. It is followed by the explanation how these limitations were imple- mented. The third part of the work describes how the Indigenous Americans struggled to receive the right to vote. However significant the moment of gaining the right was, it did not put an end to their struggle for equal treatment. On the contrary, a list of court cases based on Voting Rights Act violations is still extending, which is described in the fourth part of the paper. The fifth part examines contemporary issues regarding the Na- tive Americans’ right to vote.

naruszenie prawa głosu prawo ludności rdzennej do głosowania prawa głosu rdzenni Amerykanie

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Author: Jaroslaw Matwiejuk
E-mail: matwiejuk@uwb.edu.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet w BIałymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6346-330X
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 185-198
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.14
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5214.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Republic of Tajikistan gained independence in consequence of the break-up of the Soviet Union and, for the first time in its history, had started to build a constitutional system modeled after democratic states. Tajikistan’s system of government is governed by the constitution adopted on November 6, 1994 in a national constitutional referen- dum. The country’s constitutional system is evolving. Its constitution has been amend- ed three times so far. The changes affected the legal position of the head of state, were intended to allow the incumbent President to remain in power, and were made before an upcoming presidential election. The amendments to the constitution included trans- formation of the parliament into a bicameral parliament, introduction of a presidential form of government, and a number of other important changes. All amendments to the constitution were approved by the nation in a national referendum. The constitution- al system appears to be stable but may evolve further. The question that remains is: In which direction will it evolve?

parlament (Madżli- si Oli) Republika Tadżykistanu prezydent konstytucja referendum

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Author: Anna Hadała-Skóra
E-mail: hadala.anna@interia.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6432-5651
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 199-210
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.15
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5215.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article is devoted to one of the classic functions of the legislature, which is the con- trol function. In the first part of the elaboration the author focuses on the characteriza- tion of such concepts as control, parliamentary control and the control function regard- ing doctrinal level. The rest of the article deals with the specific competences by which the Congress of the Senate of the United States of America participates in the perfor- mance of the parliamentary control function.

Stany Zjednoczone Ameryki funkcja kontrolna druga izba parlamentu senat

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Author: Renata Świrgoń-Skok
E-mail: rskok@op.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2635-6462
Author: Małgorzata Trybus
E-mail: trybus.m.m@gmail.com
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 211-221
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.06.16
PDF: ppk/52/ppk5216.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of this article is to present the development and structure of the judiciary in the Vatican City State, which is an absolute and elective monarchy, while the Supreme Pon- tiff of the Universal Church enjoys full legislative, executive and judicial power. In turn, the system of public authorities’ power has a complex structure and is completely differ- ent from the construction of the political system in other countries. This in turn implies the original judicial structure in the Vatican City State.

sędzia sąd władza sądowa Państwo Miasto Watykan

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