- Year of publication: 2020
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-12
- DOI Address: -
The constitution regulates many different goods and values that relate to individual and collective life. In the constitution of the republic, two types of civic communities are most important: the state as a common good and local government units. Author of the article analyzes these two values in the light of the Polish Constitution of April 2, 1997, historical and philosophical foundations, and especially the science of law and case law of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal. According to the author, the self-government community is an integral element of constitutional axiology, i.e. the idea of the common good that belongs to the essence of polish state. The principle of decentralization of public authority is an important technical and legal consequence of the concept of the republican state and the principle of subsidiarity, and not an independent axiological justification of the relationship between the state and local government. These relationships and their social acceptance depends not only on legal regulations, but also on the attitudes and responsibilities of politicians and ordinary citizens. The actual relationship between the republican state and the local government community and their social acceptance depends, however, on legal regulations, but also on the attitudes and responsibilities of politicians and citizens.
The article refers to the status of the Marshal of the Sejm, especially with regard to his position as a „guard of the Sejm”. The Author characterizes Marshal competences connected with watching over peace and order within the Sejm, both in terms of legal status and parliamentary practice. In the context of the practice of the previous term of office of the Sejm, he draws attention to the numerous cases of the Marshal using his procedural powers in a way that favours deputies of the fraction represented by the Marshal and their abuse against opposition deputies.
Performance of parliamentary mandate by professional lawyers is one of the elements that can contribute to improving the quality of law, which is created in a democratic state ruled by law. In Polish reality, this applies, among others, to the possibility of performance of the functions of a MP and senator by attorneys-at-law. However, this issue is also associated with certain constitutional problems resulting mainly from the separate status of parliamentarians and lawyers providing legal assistance, including the potential conflict between the naturally political nature of deputies and the parliament and the independence of lawyers and bar associations. The purpose of this study is to briefly discuss selected specific issues related to these problems.
The scope of this article is to show the evolution of the basic principles of electoral law in elections to constitutive organs of the units of local government and parliamentary elections in Poland since 1989. In the article it is shown the constitutional and statutory regulations concerning basic principles of electoral law and the methods of determining the elections results applicable in Poland in past thirty years, from the Sejm and the Senat Electoral Acts of 1989, to the Electoral Code of 2011 (amended in 2018). According to the author of this article, this evolution of rules results in establish two models of regulations of the principles of electoral law and electoral system. The first model is applicable in elections to Sejm, to voivodeships councils, to county councils and to municipal councils in “big” municipalities (more than 20.000 citizens), the second model is applicable in elections to Senat and to municipal councils in “small” municipalities (less than 20.000 citizens).
The article discusses the issues of the passing of local enactments by the bodies which constitute the units of the territorial local government. Considerations include both the analysis of the legal status and practice. The main problem which arises against that background is connected with the fact that the legislator applies a patchy legislative technique when authorising the territorial local government to independently regulate certain issues. Once, he definitely prejudges that the body of the territorial local government passes the regulation which is the act of local law; however, at other times he allows the addressees to settle that issue by themselves. In the latter case it causes serious problems in practice as the bodies of the territorial local government make diverging assessments in this matter. It leads to the inconsistent system of sources of the binding local law.
Parliament and self-government have become a foundation of the modern democratic state. In order to achieve to proper significance of the self-government in the works of the Parliament it is crucial to establish institutional guarantees in its organisation. Commission on Local Self-government and Regional Policy is one of the most fundamental instutional guarantees of representing the intrests of local self-government in Polish Parliament which is confirmed by its practice. That is why it is necessary to study its activity. An analysis of the Commission’s tasks performed in accordance with its statute provides the basis for assessing the activities of the Commission during the eighth term of office of the Parliament (2015–2019).
The basics of professional self-regulation are not enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, in ordinary law and legal doctrine, this professional self-regulation institution was determined thanks to the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania. One foprofessional self-regulation is the Lithuanian Bar Association, which is discussed in more detail in this paper. The subject of the analysis are the features of the legal status of the Bar Association in Lithuanian law and legal doctrine and its practical impact on legislative processes.
In this article, we write about the key principles of decentralization of state power and peculiarities of its realization in conditions of democratic transformation (experience of Ukraine). Decentralization became a real megatrend of the XX and probably XXI centuries (at least in Ukraine). First of all because of the ever-increasing interest of people in the role of civil society and the private sector as the primary partners of the state and local self-government bodies to search for new methods, instruments and approaches to solve local issues at the level of their emergence. Decentralization as a process involves, first of all, restructuring, review of procedures and redistribution of powers to increase the competitiveness of territorial communities, to strengthen democracy and effectively address local issues at the level of their emergence. At the time of globalization, decentralization has become its foundation, as it increases the weight of local rule-making and the importance of relationships at the international, national, regional and local levels through the practical application of the principle of subsidiarity.
Immunity (parliamentary, judicial or vested in other persons performing important public functions) seems to be an indispensable institution in legal systems of democratic countries. However, notwithstanding the legal regulations on immunity(s) in given conditions (regulations on immunity expressis verbis), there are also legal provisions which indirectly exempt people who perform certain public functions from liability or create a situation where they cannot be held liable. This study is devoted to such unobvious immunities in Polish law. The analysis is limited to the sphere of financial law due to the functions, role and significance of public financial decisions and their effects. Recognizing that finances are „nerves of the state”, tolerance (non-sanctioning) in this sphere of undesirable behavior requires analysis, especially in the context of the principles of proper management of public funds.
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