Author: Anna Szyszka
E-mail: annaszyszka@poczta.fm
Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0333-786X
Author: Jarosław Czerkawski
E-mail: jaroslaw.czerkawski@kul.pl
Institution: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3594-9385
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 383-398
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.20
PDF: ppk/56/ppk5620.pdf

Streszczenie:

Awarding the Renumeration to a Professional Attorney for Preparing an Opinion on the Grounds of a Complaint to an Administrative Court

This article is focused on ethical and legal aspects of remuneration for work performed by the attorney established under the right to assistance in the court-administrative proceedings. The attorney established under the right to assistance is obliged to prepare a pleading enabling the party to initiate court proceedings. The legislator did not foresee the possibility for an attorney established under the right to assistance to draw up an opinion on the lack of grounds to lodge a complaint. In its teaching the Church emphasizes the ethical dimension of work. It concerns both the performance of work and the payment for its completion. Every job should be performed with due diligence and integrity. It is necessary that the payment for the work done should be fair and adequate. It is unacceptable that the performed job remains unpaid for. Similarly, the employee cannot demand remuneration if he either failed to do the job or did not meet the required standards. The ethical dimension comprises the responsibility for the jobs undertaken by employees. The aim of the article is to try to Combie two scientific Fields to show that both the legal and ethical Fields have the same rulet described in different scientific languages. The autors hope that the issues raised will significantly contribute to under standing what remuneration is for the work done, as well as the fact that in the ethical and legal field this type ob. Behavior is unacceptable. Both the law and social teaching of the Catholic Church consider such attitudes to be reprehensible.

fachowy pełnomocnik etyczna odpowiedzialność za pracę godziwa płaca professional attorney ethical responsibility for work

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Author: Kazimierz M. Ujazdowski
E-mail: kmujazdowski@gmail.com
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3156-1842
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 399-411
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.21
PDF: ppk/56/ppk5621.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Constitutional Position of the Judiciary in France. Between Politicization and Corporatism

The French legal tradition shaped by the French Revolution has been critical of the ‘power of the judges” and has not considered the judiciary to be a separate authority of comparable importance to the executive and legislative powers. According to the post-revolutionary tradition, appointments to the positions of judges were made by the executive power. It can be assumed that the Constitution of the 5th French Republic at the time of its enactment identified with this approach, as it entrusted the President and the Minister of Justice with competence in fundamental matters of justice. The evolution of the 1958 Constitution and of the constitutional practice deserves attention and a detailed analysis. France abandoned the domination of the executive power in this sector for the benefit of the increasing influence of judges on the administration of justice and the empowerment of the Supreme Judicial Council itself. At the same time, the 5th Republic maintained the originality of the constitutional provisions in this area and the strong position of the executive power and the Minister for Justice. Last but not least, an important motive for a constitutional debate and constitutional amendments is the concern for a balanced constitutional model that would be immune both to the danger of politicization and corporatism of the judiciary. Therefore, the case of France is important when seeking solutions that would combine independence and accountability of the judiciary. The article analyses the evolution of the political position of the judiciary in France, as well as the basic ideas and arguments raised in the constitutional debate.

politicization and corporatism Supreme Judicial Council Constitution of the 5th Republic independence and accountability of the judiciary polityzacja i korporatyzm Najwyższa Rada Sądownictwa Konstytucja V Republiki Niezależność i odpowiedzialność sądownictwa

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Author: Daria Bieńkowska
E-mail: tittke@wp.pl
Institution: Akademia Pomorska w Słupsku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5659-4819
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 413-423
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.22
PDF: ppk/56/ppk5622.pdf

Streszczenie:

Constitutional Guarantees of Specific Health Services in the Context of Protecting Women in Pregnacy

Providing health services to pregnant women is a special situation, which is confirmed in constitutional provisions, and above all in art. 68 paragraph 3 of the Polish Constitution. This article imposes on public authorities the obligation to provide specific health care to certain entities, including women expecting a child. Regardless of the principles of financing health services, pregnant women are in a distinguished group for which the state guarantees special health care. The purpose of the article is to indicate that the normative scope of provision 68 para. 3 is an expression of the specific axiology adopted by the constitution-maker, in which the care of a pregnant woman also means caring for the development of the nation, human dignity and protection of life and health - i.e. fundamental values. Legislative regulations related to norms of protection for pregnant women should constitute a kind of control pattern regarding standards of providing services in healthcare, understanding the essence of this care and the ability to decode legal norms in terms of constitutionally protected values. The basic research method was dogmatic and legal (stylistic and linguistic) analysis, as well as humanistic axiological analysis.

ochrona zdrowia human dignity helath care legal protection for pregnant women specific health care ochrona kobiet w ciąży godność ludzka szczególna opieka zdrowotna

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Author: Grzegorz Kryszeń
E-mail: kryszen@edu.uwb.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7556-2716
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 425-441
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.23
PDF: ppk/56/ppk5623.pdf

Streszczenie:

Citizen Initiated Referendum and Polish Referendum Law

The main aim of this study is to respond to the call to give citizens the power to initiate a referendum in a binding way. The key question in this context is whether such a postulate should not be treated as just a typical manifestation of political populism and thus rejected, or whether it should be supported by recognizing the institution of a referendum initiated by the citizens as a factor conducive to a more complete implementation of the idea of democratic rule, without threatening the destabilization and dysfunctionality of the political system. The analysis carried out in the article proves that this institution cannot be discredited because it should be seen as a necessary element of the process of exercising power in a democratic state. The proposed legal regulation may be conducive to achieving such a role in Polish political practice.

referendum direct democracy democracy national sovereignty citizen initiated referendum referendum inicjowane przez obywateli demokracja bezpośrednia demokracja suwerenność narodu

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Author: Piotr Czeczot
E-mail: piotr.czeczot@o2.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0137-8526
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 443-459
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.24
PDF: ppk/56/ppk5624.pdf

Streszczenie:

Second Amendment to the American Constitution. Genesis, Targets and Objectives

The author will try to trace the genesis of the Second Amendment in the context of the American constitution process and the influence of other legal acts on the final content of the provision in question. What’s more the author will analyze the ideas that accompanied the Founding Fathers and which led to the creation of the United States Constitution. The author will analyze the objectives of the Second Amendment and the ideological assumptions that underpin it, including the issue of enabling citizens personal defense and the protection of private property, as well as the issue of guaranteeing citizens an effective tool to resist the state apparatus as a guarantee of citizens’ freedom as well as to prevent possible tyranny. Finally, the author will refer to the issue of culture of gun ownership in the USA and Poland.

constitutional law culture of gun ownership right to keep and bear arms firearms USA US Constitution Constitution second amendment kultura posiadania broni prawo do posiadania i noszenia broni broń prawo konstytucyjne Konstytucja Stanów Zjednoczonych Ameryki konstytucja druga poprawka

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Author: Agata Pyrzyńska
E-mail: agata.pyrzynska@usz.edu.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4573-4310
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 463-471
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.25
PDF: ppk/56/ppk5625.pdf

Streszczenie:

Author: Daniel Wojtczak
E-mail: danielwojtczak@o2.pl
Institution: Górnośląska Wyższa Szkoła Handlowa im. Wojciecha Korfantego w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8637-1149
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 485-488
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.28
PDF: ppk/56/ppk5628.pdf

Streszczenie:

Author: Edyta Tkaczyk
E-mail: edytatkaczyk13@wp.pl
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Menedżerska w Warszawie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9831-6430
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 491-500
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.29
PDF: ppk/56/ppk5629.pdf

Streszczenie:

Teza

Trybunał Konstytucyjny postanowił o utracie mocy przepisu art. 57 § 5 pkt 2 ustawy z 14 czerwca 1960 r. – Kodeks postępowania administracyjnego (Dz.U. 2018, poz. 2096 oraz 2019, poz. 60, 730 i 1133), w brzmieniu obowiązującym do 2 lipca 2019 r., w zakresie, w jakim różnicuje skutki nadania pisma procesowego w zależności od miejsca położenia operatora pocztowego na obszarze Unii Europejskiej, uzależniając skuteczność zachowania terminu wykonania czynności od nadania pisma wyłącznie w polskiej placówce pocztowej operatora wyznaczonego w rozumieniu ustawy z 23 listopada 2012 r. – Prawo pocztowe (Dz.U. 2018, poz. 2188 oraz 2019, poz. 1051), jest niezgodny z art. 32 i art. 78 Konstytucji Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej oraz z art. 21 ust. 1 Traktatu o funkcjonowaniu Unii Europejskiej (Dz.U. 2004, nr 90, poz. 864/2).

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