Author: Jaba Urotadze
E-mail: jaba.urotadze@tsu.ge
Institution: Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5567-0595
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 171-185
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020311
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020311.pdf

Streszczenie:

In 2018, a mandatory funded pension model (second pillar) was introduced in Georgia. At present, the Georgian pension system has three pillars, but the reform does not apply to current pensioners. If society does not trust all three pillars, the chances of reversing the pension reform will rise for two reasons. First, the replacement rate from the first pillar (state redistributive pension) is much lower than in any of the OECD member states. Second, for the majority of participants of the second pillar, pension payments will start in 20-25 years’ time. Such a long period creates uncertainty for many about whether long-term economic growth will be achieved, which in turn would make possible an adequate level of retirement income. This paper attempts to identify means of increasing replacement rates for the state redistributive pension and coverage of the voluntary funded third pillar. The research provides recommendations to enhance the Georgian pension system.

pension replacement rate pension pillars pension reform Georgia

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Author: Joanna Rak
E-mail: joanna.rak@amu.edu.pl
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0505-3684
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 189-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020312
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020312.pdf

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Book review: Daniel Kawa (ed.), International Security and State Borders, Adam Marszałek Publishing House, Toruń 2019, pp. 277

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Author: Kamil Pietrasik
E-mail: kamilpietrasik@interia.pl
Institution: Asia-Pacific Society, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8579-0659
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 194-197
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020314
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020314.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book review: Michał Dahl, Aktywność dyplomacji USA wobec państw członkowskich Unii Europejskiej w latach 2009–2013, Nicolaus Copernicus University Press, Toruń 2019, pp. 224

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Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 198-200
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020315
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020315.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book review: Ryszard Ficek, Christians in socio-political life. An Applied Analysis of the Theological Anthropology of Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, Primate of Poland, Adam Marszałek Publishing House, Toruń 2020, pp. 406

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Author: Joanna Siekiera
E-mail: joanna.siekiera@uib.no
Institution: University of Bergen, Norway
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0125-9121
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 203-206
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020316
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020316.pdf

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European Academy of Diplomacy Warsaw Science Diplomacy School. Warsaw, (June 22-26, 2020), European Academy of Diplomacy and Inventing a shared Science Diplomacy for Europe (InsSciDE)

Warsaw Science Diplomacy School 2020 was the 1st edition of summer school held together by the European Academy of Diplomacy, based in Poland, and the European Union led programme Inventing a shared Science Diplomacy for Europe (InsSciDE). The week-long venue took place online, due to the coronavirus pandemic, between 22-26 June 2020. Class of 2020 consisted of 28 participants from 6 continents, 10 European Union member states and 27 countries in total, where vast majority possessed different nationality and country of residence. Also, the mentors and instructors of the school came from over 13 institutions gathered in the InsSciDe consortium. Participants were divided into 4 teams where they were discussing study cases of how European science diplomacy applies to global challenges. The chosen challenges were the following: Natural resources as public goods for global health; A Matter of Global Epidemic Diplomacy; Scientists in diplomacy during the Scramble for Africa; and A co-production of science and diplomacy in the Law of the Sea.

European Union Europe European diplomacy summer school science diplomacy diplomacy

Author: Natalia Lewandowska
E-mail: nanalewandowska@gmail.com
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2396-3048
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 134-148
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020308
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020308.pdf

Streszczenie:

In the Fourth Industrial Revolution we already have robots, also there are such technologies as genetic sequencing and editing, artificial intelligence, miniaturized sensors, 3D printing and much more. Digital technologies are constantly being developed with new methods and have been implemented worldwide into various processes and automation systems. The article describes modern digitalization components and analyzes its possible threats. Along with an increase in life comfort, modern civilizations must face with cybercrimes based on data collection, including cyber thefts and hacker attacks. Globalization enables exchanging goods and services between countries of the world. It also gives a tool phishing and illegally access vulnerable information of global enterprises to compete unfairly. Although Big Data can be helpful among organizations, it can also be a mark of the inevitable danger worldwide.

phishing digitalization cybercrimes Industry 4.0 the Fourth Industrial Revolution Big Data globalization

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