Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 3-4
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy20204toc.pdf

Streszczenie:

Polish Political Science Yearbook, 49(4). Published online: December 31, 2020. The Polish Political Science Yearbook is international peer-reviewed journal indexed in: American Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies (ABSEES) Online, BazHum, Central and Eastern European Online Library, Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (cejsh.icm.edu.pl), Columbia International Affairs Online, Cosmos Impact Factor, Directory of Open Access Journals, Electronic Journals Library, ERIH Plus, Gale PowerSearch, Google Scholar, HeinOnline, IBR – International Bibliography of Book Reviews of Scholarly Literature on the Humanities and Social Sciences, IBZ – International Bibliography of Periodical Literature on the Humanities and Social Sciences, ICI Journals Master List, International Political Science Abstracts, Open Academic Journals Index, POL-Index (Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) and The Lancaster Index.

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Author: Daniel Komarzyca
E-mail: daniel.komarzyca@uwr.edu.pl
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1562-994X
Author: Janina Fras
E-mail: janina.fras@uwr.edu.pl
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0672-482X
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 9-36
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020402
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020402.pdf

Streszczenie:

This paper provides insights into the relationship between language and politically relevant aspects of culture in India and China which are as follows: attitude toward revolution and tradition, the domination of politics over religion or vice versa, and a concern for the liberty of the individual. The paper introduces a novel approach to the comparative study of civilizations by advancing the political-linguistic explanation. In so doing, it combines Hajime Nakamura’s hypothesis of the strict connection between language and culture (understood as a way of thinking) with Samuel P. Huntington’s emphasis on the impact of cultural differences on the political dimension of society – so that our explanatory model can be expressed as follows: language→culture→politics. As far as language is concerned, the focus is on the basic structure of Sanskrit and Chinese; besides, special attention is given to Indian and Chinese philosophies of language. Culturally, the most relevant schools of Hindu philosophy may be called “ultraconservative” since they tend to ground unchanging meaning firmly in metaphysics and rely on the supreme authority of ancient religious texts. In contrast, the Chinese typically considered language a social mechanism for shaping our behavior (so the relation of language and society is the most crucial); they also expressed clearly divergent views on naming. In short, at least four distinctive perspectives are essential: (1) conservative Confucianism, (2) anti-traditional and highly authoritarian Legalism, (3) egalitarian and linguistically skeptical Laozian Daoism, (4) nonconformist and proto-libertarian Zhuangzian Daoism.

Taoism left-libertarianism comparative perspective linguistic relativity philosophy of language India political culture China

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Author: Jarosław Macała
E-mail: jarekm@o2.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Zielonogórski (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0788-0747
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 37-47
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020403
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020403.pdf

Streszczenie:

This paper focuses on the issue of geopolitics in the pop culture interpretation as illustrated by the Polish pop music after the year 1989. Songs selected from various trends of the Polish popular music made the source material of the text. The primary study method involved the analysis of the lyrics discourse. The Polish geopolitical imaginations used to revolve around the basis axis of better West and worse East, symbolized mainly by Russia, but its image was transferred over entire Asia. Asia, including China, was scarcely present in the geopolitical imaginations contained in the pop music, which, at the same time, reflected the irrelevant interest of Polish elites in global problems. The discourses in the musical texts about China frequently adopted the West’s perspective, where Poland made part of as seen by our elites. The rhetoric strategy concerning China in popular music featured two essential views, which references Orientalism as specified by E. Said. It explains the frequent use of the postcolonial discourse by the Polish elites, also the music ones, which promoted the supremacy of the West over the rest of the world and the universal nature of the Western world values which were meant to be implemented into other civilizations and nations for their own sake. China was presented as a growing threat for the dominance of the West, the USA in the first place, as an alternative model of globalization and international deal putting offthe world by its cultural and geopolitical alienation, as well as indicating negative effects for Poland.

China Poland popular music popular geopolitics critical geopolitics geopolitical imaginations

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Author: Adetunji Ojo Ogunyemi
E-mail: motunji@gmail.com
Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 51-71
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020404
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020404.pdf

Streszczenie:

By May 29, 2019, Nigeria’s Fourth Republic and democracy had achieved an unprecedented 20 unbroken years of active partisan politics and representative democracy. The First Republic had lasted barely three years (1963-1966); the Second Republic and its democratic institutions lasted just four years (1979-1983) while the Third Republic (19921993) could barely hold its head for one year. Hence, by mid-2019, not many analysts have congratulated Nigeria for its longest democratic experience since its independence from Britain in 1960, but hardly did any of them identify the core reasons for such a sustained rule of democratic ethos for two decades. In this paper, we show the origin and practice of political parties in Nigeria. We argue that the country had succeeded in its Fourth Republic as a democratic country because its law and constitution together with the political culture of the people had permitted multiparty democracy by which governments had been formed, political inclusion and popular participation ensured, and public policies initiated. We also present an analysis of party politicking in the country from its beginning in 1923 and conclude that Nigeria has achieved meaningful and sustainable dividends of democracy in her Fourth Republic because of a maturing culture of partisan politics.

Nigeria party politics power nation-building nation

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Author: Emmanuel Osewe Akubor
E-mail: oseweakubor@gmail.com
Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 72-86
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020405
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020405.pdf

Streszczenie:

Historically, campaigns are recognized as a vital part of electioneering since it contains the ideas that the candidate wants to share with the voters, especially regarding policy issues and the administration’s focus. It aims to get those who agree with their ideas to support them when running for a political position. The message often consists of several talking points about policy issues. However, a study of Nigeria’s situation, with specific reference to the 2015 Campaigns and Electioneering, revealed that the main content of campaigns was hate speeches. Therefore, this paper seeks to bring out the main issues of campaigns in Nigeria’s electoral system and why it has often led to electoral violence over the years. The qualitative method is used for this particular research. Data obtained from primary and secondary sources were deployed to carry out the study with an analytical and narrative historical approach. It includes historical, descriptive, and analytical approaches based on gathered evidence. This research’s primary source is based on field investigations conducted in the Nigerian area and surrounding territories. Among other things, the data collection process includes semi-structured interviews with selected individuals. The research also uses historical documents from the national archives, relying on previous research conducted on society, administrative development, and documentary data taken from newspaper accounts, diaries, letters, and verbal reports. This research’s position is that campaigns over the years in Nigeria, unlike what is obtainable in some parts of the world where policy issues form the backbone of campaign message have basically on persons, character assassination, violence, and abusive (hate) speeches. The paper argues that this campaign strategy often leads to electoral violence before, during, and after elections. The paper, therefore, concludes that only issue-based campaigns can guarantee peaceful and credible elections in Nigeria.

democracy elections Nigeria electioneering campaign

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Author: Tunde Abioro
E-mail: abiorotunde@gmail.com
Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria)
Author: Omolara Akinyemi
Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria)
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 87-104
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020406
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020406.pdf

Streszczenie:

Modern governments in modern states in third world countries are overwhelmed with social circumstances that have forced citizens to resort to self-help. Also, prevalent unclear demographic and globalization issues are sometimes neutral lines of justification for either transit or destination posture of the West African states. Concisely, poverty issues have continuously permeated the West Africa region’s fabric, and the challenges seem protracting. It has implications for mobility, (women) trafficking, and human security, among others. The quantitative approach adopted profiled index while evaluating and descriptive methods explained the content. Among other findings, lack of national data and proper immigration service is obvious. Thus, adequate data for national planning is recommended. Further, ongoing regional and national initiatives for possible integration and collaboration to address challenges are advocated.

human security gender inequality trafficking mobility poverty

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Author: Tomasz Łukaszuk
E-mail: t.lukaszuk@uw.edu.pl
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5613-7503
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 105-127
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020407
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020407.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article’s purpose is the multidimensional analysis of the evolution of Australia and India’s maritime policies and their impact on the endeavors to develop their maritime cooperation in the 21st century. Two research questions are to be answered in that connection: what changes and why India and Australia introduced to enhance their maritime security doctrines in the 21st century and why those changes contributed to the more in-depth cooperation in the second decade of the 21st century. The hypothesis based on those questions argues that not only the rise of China but also global processes in maritime affairs - such as the growing number of state and non-state actors, as well as the interdependence between the fields of human activities at sea - pushed the littorals like India and Australia to turn their maritime strength from coastal to oceanic and convinced them too to cooperate. That process was accompanied by the convergence of the security perceptions by both countries (India and Australia) and the mutual understanding of common interests in all the elements of modern maritime security. The Christian Bueger’s matrix serves as an explanatory framework to highlight the dynamics and broader context of the changes in India and Australia’s maritime security doctrines in the 21st century. It provides the conceptual framework for explaining closer cooperation between these two countries. The article analyzes India and Australia’s maritime strategies, focusing on four variables from Bueger’s matrix: national security, economic development, marine environment, and human security. In those dependent variables, particular elements of their activities serving as sub-variables are highlighted: in national security - shaping the seapower; in economic development - Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing; in the marine environment - climate change mitigation; in human security - the fight against piracy and human trafficking. The choice of the mentioned elements is justified by their role in Australia and India’s activities within maritime strategies and their influence on other elements of the maritime security matrix. The article starts with a description of Bueger’s matrix in the context of the evolution of the maritime security concept in international relations. The second part outlines the centrality of the Indian Ocean in Indian and Australian modern military and economic security. The third part explores and explains the roots of Indian maritime security thinking, and the fourth investigates the evolution in Australia’s attitude toward maritime affairs. The final part presents the developments in Indo-Australian bilateral cooperation in the 21st century.

Indian Ocean maritime security sea power blue economy marine environment human resilience

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Author: Jed Lea-Henry
E-mail: jedlea_sh@vignanuniversity.org
Institution: Vignan University (India)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6890-0257
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 131-152
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020408
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020408.pdf

Streszczenie:

Humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) are currently limited and encumbered by a pervasive absence of a political will. In states’ calculations, political considerations are constantly winning-out over the moral considerations of saving at-risk segments of our planet. While institutional and legal reforms undoubtedly play a role in addressing this challenge, such reforms and structures have existed for generations now, and have largely failed to bridge this gap from ‘moral necessity to political action’. What has been lacking is a moral understanding of humanitarian crises that is capable of reliably motivating the international community to undertake remedying actions, rather than merely expressions of concern. Such a moral foundation is achievable through institutional cosmopolitanism, an understanding of humanitarian intervention as satisfactions of our negative duties, and specifically the work of Thomas Pogge.

humanitarian intervention Thomas Pogge atrocity crimes institutional responsibility

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Author: Bartłomiej H. Toszek
E-mail: clermont@wp.pl
Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2989-7168
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 153-165
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020409
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020409.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article presents the main parties (i.e. the Conservative Party, Labor Party, Liberal Democrats and Scottish National Party) results of the 2019 UK general election as well as an analysis of the most important issues (i.e. correct identification of voters’ expectations, simplicity and clarity of the messages, leaders’ personalities) which determined each party success or loss. The author proves that since Brexit was the primary focus of voters, the level of support for particular parties remained dependent on the solutions presented in this issue. This basis explains why the Conservatives in the whole UK and the SNP in Scotland won (and the Labor Party and the Liberal Democrats lost) the battle of Brexit.

the European Union Scotland Brexit the United Kingdom the 2019 United Kingdom general election

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