Published online: 27 May 2021
Final submission: 5 May 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Anna Owczarczyk
E-mail: anna.owczarczyk@uph.edu.pl
Institution: Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1363-2296
Source: Show
Page no: 16
Pages: 11-26
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202102
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202102.pdf

Streszczenie:

The unfavorable demographic situation and the falling number of births resulted in an increased interest among Polish politicians in introducing tools to social policy that would reverse this negative trend. Implemented to social policy by Prawo i Sprawiedliwość Party in 2016, the “Family 500+” benefit has become such a tool. According to the government’s intention, this financial aid for families with children aims to reverse the decline in the number of births observed for many years and reduce the scale of poverty among families with the most complex financial situation. After several years of the “Family 500+” Program in force, it is difficult to clearly define whether the goals were achieved and whether the expenses for financing the program were adequate to the results. The aim of the article is an attempt at the assessment of the functioning of the Family 500+ Programme. Both the statutory assumptions of the programme, the costs of its functioning, and its results so far were analyzed. The central part of the analysis covered the period 2016–2019.

pro-natal policy 500+ Programme poverty social policy

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Published online: 31 May 2021
Final submission: 8 February 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Anna Kobierecka
E-mail: anna.kobierecka@uni.lodz.pl
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2492-6452
Source: Show
Page no: 15
Pages: 9-23
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202101
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202101.pdf

Streszczenie:

The People’s Republic of China is one of the states focusing intensively on building its soft power and shaping its international image. However, China’s image is still negative and primarily based on stereotypes. In recent years, this country is willing to change such perceptions and present itself as an efficient, intensively developing, capable country that is much more than just a global production plant. The article aims to review China’s different manifestations of development aid regarding changing this type of public diplomacy and its meaning to the Chinese government. Is it only motivated by good intentions, or maybe its goal is to only provide an advantage to China? It is evident that owing to significant development, China needs to expand its economic contacts. However, the tested hypothesis states that behind Chinese development aid, political motivation is hidden as well. The research is based on content analysis of official documents and Foreign Ministry’s statements referring to development aid.

development aid People’s Republic of China soft power public diplomacy China

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Published online: 10 June 2021
Final submission: 9 September 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Małgorzata Polkowska
E-mail: mpolkowska@wp.pl
Institution: War Studies Academy (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6633-2222
Source: Show
Page no: 11
Pages: 159-169
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202103
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202103.pdf

Streszczenie:

Space Traffic Management (STM) is a new concept referring to space activities. The highest priority is the safety and security of outer space and all conducted operations. There is no definition of STM. There is an urgent need to regulate STM providing safety and security regulations at the international, regional, and national levels. Because there is no STM definition, the regulator might use the example of existing regulations of the International Civil Aviation Organization on Air Traffic Management (ATM). European EUSST is a good example of being a “precursor” of STM. However, many questions are still open regarding specific regulations needed to create an STM system, such as at which level they should be made: globally, regionally, or nationally.

national legislation code of conduct space management space debris SSA

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Published online: 10 June 2021
Final submission: 1 August 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Eric Pomès
E-mail: epomes@ices.fr
Institution: Vendée Catholic University (ICES) (France)
Author: Jean-Marc Coicaud
E-mail: jeanmarc.coicaud@rutgers.edu
Institution: Rutgers University, State University of New Jersey (USA)
Source: Show
Page no: 18
Pages: 25-42
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202104
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202104.pdf

Streszczenie:

The China Sea connects as many coastal states as it divides due to the economic and strategic challenges it represents. It also embodies an area of confrontations between the Great American and Chinese strategies. Identifying with precision the differences that arise requires an interest in the symbolic dimensions that surround them. This angle of analysis provides an opportunity to observe the functioning of international law and inevitably leads to a discussion of the emerging international order. The literature on the situation in the China Sea abounds. The paper’s singularity is to approach it under the prism of international law as revealing the psychology of an actor. To carry out this research, the authors use a pragmatic and critical approach to international law. The thesis defended shows that, contrary to a positivist and judicial approach to international law, elements exogenous to the law, the history, and the psychology of an actor, influence the interpretation of existing norms.

elements exogenous to the law liberal/illiberal hegemony interpretations territorial disputes South China Sea emotions international law

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Published online: 10 June 2021
Final submission: 9 September 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Maciej Skrzypek
E-mail: maciej.skrzypek@amu.edu.pl
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8018-1854
Source: Show
Page no: 14
Pages: 37-50
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202105
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202105.pdf

Streszczenie:

The COVID-19 pandemic occurred in Poland during the campaign before the presidential election scheduled for May 10. This non-military threat changed the election campaign’s dynamics, leading to an unprecedented failure to hold elections and postponing them. Around the changes in the election procedure, many constitutionalists and political scientists voiced their inconsistency with the law and the provisions of the Constitutional Tribunal. Both the proposed provisions and the manner of their organization raised objections. The article classifies these changes as manifestations of democratic backsliding, weakening democratic institutions and leading to a decline in the quality of democracy. The research goal is to analyze the records in the selected source material and relate them to the selected theoretical category (democratic backsliding). In the course of the research, the following hypothesis is verified: in the face of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland, attempts by the ruling elite to change the provisions related to organizing the presidential elections scheduled for May 10 are an example of democratic backsliding, which, by weakening democratic institutions, has threatened the constitutional provisions and the essence of the democratic system.

amendments in Electoral Code presidential elections in Poland democratic backsliding in Poland

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Published online: 15 June 2021
Final submission: 7 June 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Lech Wyszczelski
Institution: War Studies Academy (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2063-4281
Source: Show
Page no: 17
Pages: 181-184
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202106
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202106.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book Review: Zbigniew Girzyński, Jarosław Kłaczkow, Jan Żaryn (Eds.), Fundamenty Niepodległości. Sejm Ustawodawczy (1919–1922), Toruń 2020, pp. 574.

Published online: 17 June 2021
Final submission: 5 May 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Beata Pituła
E-mail: beata.pitula@polsl.pl
Institution: Silesian University of Technology (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7691-3821
Source: Show
Page no: 17
Pages: 149-165
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202107
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202107.pdf

Streszczenie:

The primary aim of this article is to present the results and research findings of a pilot study on teachers’ attitudes manifested toward the idea of society 5.0. The study is a part of one of the priority research areas of the Silesian University of Technology – Processes automation and Industry 4.0. in terms of the socio-cultural and methodological implications of Industry 4.0. Eighty-four teachers participated in the research and completed the questionnaire electronically. The research bores the characteristics of a preliminary diagnosis of the problem. Hence, the collected empirical material does not allow the formulation of methodologically valid conclusions. However, it may constitute a “voice in the discussion” on the preparation of teachers for the inevitable change of the role of the school and the teacher in the new society.

society 5.0 attitude teacher

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 25 October 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Gideon Biger
E-mail: bigergideon@gmail.com
Institution: Tel Aviv University (Israel)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6038-7129
Source: Show
Page no: 12
Pages: 77-88
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202108
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202108.pdf

Streszczenie:

Earlier this year, President Donald Trump presented his Peace Plan for Israel and the Palestinians. The plan also dealt with the future boundaries of Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the only city ruled by a sovereign regime, the State of Israel, which declared Jerusalem as its Capital city and draw its boundary lines. Except for the US, the status and boundaries of Jerusalem are not accepted by any other international or national entity. Only the United States, which accepts Jerusalem as the capital city of Israel, agreed to accept its Israeli declared boundaries. Jerusalem’s status and boundaries stand at the core of the dispute between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, which wishes to restore the pre-1967 line. The city of Jerusalem was divided during the years 1948-1967 between Israel and Jordan. The Palestinian Authority thus calls for a separation of Jerusalem between two independent states. Today, Jerusalem has an urban boundary that serves partly as a separating line between Israel and the Palestinian Autonomy, but most countries do not accept the present boundaries, and its future permanent line and status are far from establishing. Jerusalem is a unique city. This article presents a brief history that should help understanding its uniqueness.

Peace and Prosperity international boundary urban boundary Holy City annexation Jerusalem

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 2 June 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Joanna Rak
E-mail: joanna.rak@amu.edu.pl
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0505-3684
Source: Show
Page no: 11
Pages: 51-61
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202109
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202109.pdf

Streszczenie:

Embedded in scholarship on militant democracy, this research aims to explain how Italian legislation was positioned to militant democratic measures and how this changed over time. Drawing on the qualitative source analysis and the explanatory frameworks of democratic vulnerability tests two competing theory-grounded assumptions. While the first one assumes that Italian democracy became vulnerable when traditional militant democracy instruments were outmoded, the second considers the misuse or abandonment of those means with social consent as the source of vulnerability. The crisis-induced socioeconomic inequality and uncertainty weakened the Italian political nation. As a result, the latter supported populists in return for a promise of political change. The anti-democratic legal means employed to extend power competencies and prevent the exchange of ruling parties were the way to and the costs of the expected political change. At the same time, the political nation became unable to self-organize to strengthen democracy self-defense. As a result, Italians co-produced a quasi-militant democracy that turned vulnerable because militant democracy measures were misused or not used with the consent of Italians that relinquished their political subjectivity in favor of the Northern League and the Five Star Movement.

political nation the Five Star Movement the Northern League anti-democratic restrictions contentious politics quasi-militant democracy neo-militant democracy Italy

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 17 July 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Michał Lubina
E-mail: michallubina@wp.pl
Institution: Jagiellonian University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3342-1763
Source: Show
Page no: 3
Pages: 173-175
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202110
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202110.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book Review: Chosein Yamahata, Sueo Sudo, Takashi Matsugi (Eds.), Rights and Security in India, Myanmar, and Thailand, Singapore 2020.

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