Published online: 17 December 2021
Final submission: 17 November 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Jakub Zajączkowski
E-mail: j.zajaczkowski@uw.edu.pl
Institution: University of Warsaw
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1459-3850
Source: Show
Page no: 23
Pages: 107-130
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202158
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202158.pdf

The article's objective is to analyze the main assumptions of India's strategy in the Indo-Pacific region and define the role of the US in it. The time frame of the article is determined by the assumption of power in India in 2014 by the Indian People's Party (Bharatiya Janata Party, BJP), led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, as well as the opening of a new stage of the US-led Indo-Pacific rebalancing strategy, which followed China's initiation in 2013 of its Belt and Road Initiative (previously known as the One Belt One Road project). The article seeks to answer the following main research question: What role has India attributed to the United States in its Indo-Pacific strategy since 2014? It hypothesizes that the United States has assumed an increasingly significant role in India's regional strategy over the past seven years, but not to the extent of a formal alliance, only approaching at best the status of a strategic partnership. The theoretical framework used to analyze the case study of the US role in India's regional strategy is the category of institutional balancing and the assumptions of neoclassical realism. The choice of such research tools was determined by their explanatory value. Moreover, both models complement each other. Bearing the above in mind, the following structure of the article was adopted. The first part presents the general assumption of the analysis and the theoretical framework. The second discusses the evolution of India's approach to the US from 2014 to 2021, indicating the reasons for its change and reconstructing the role of the US in the Indian regional strategy, especially after 2020. The third part draws on the theoretical framework adopted in the article, i.e., the assumptions of institutional balancing and neoclassical realism, to offer conclusions that answer the main research questions.

REFERENCES:

  • Address by Foreign Secretary at the Regional Connectivity Conference: South Asia in the Indo-Pacific Context. (2018, November 1). Speeches and Statements, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. https://www.mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/30556/Address_by_Foreign_Secretary_at_the_Regional_Connectivity_Conference__South_Asia_in_the_IndoPacific_Context
  • Annual Report 2015-16, Ministry of External Affairs. (2016). http://www.mea.gov.in/Uploads/PublicationDocs/26525_26525_External_Affairs_English_AR_2015-16_Final_compressed.pdf
  • Annual Report 2018-2019, Ministry of External Affairs. (2019). http://www.mea.gov.in/Uploads/PublicationDocs/31719_MEA_AR18_19.pdf
  • Annual Report 2019-20, Ministry of External Affairs. (2020). http://www.mea.gov.in/Uploads/PublicationDocs/32489_AR_Spread_2020_new.pdf
  • Annual Report 2020-21, Ministry of External Affairs. (2021). http://www.mea.gov.in/Uploads/PublicationDocs/33569_MEA_annual_Report.pdf
  • Asia Reassurance Initiative Act of 2018 (Briefing Paper). (2018, April 24). https://gardner.senate.gov./imo/media/doc/ARIA%20one-pager.pdf
  • Ball, D. (1993). Strategic Culture in the Asia-Pacific Region. Security Studies, 1, 44–74.
  • Baru, S. (2014). The Accidental Prime Minister: The Making and Unmaking of Manmohan Singh. New Delhi.
  • Berlin, I. (1969). Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford.
  • Brewster, D. (2014). India's Ocean: The Story of India's Bid for Regional Leadership. Routledge.
  • Chacko, P. (2014). The Rise of the Indo-Pacific: Understanding Ideational Change and Continuity in India's Foreign Policy. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 4, 433–452.
  • Chacko, P. (Ed.) (2016). New Regional Geopolitics in the Indo-Pacific: Drivers, Dynamics and Consequences. London and New York.
  • Chandra, S., & Ghoshal, B. (Eds.) (2018). The Indo-Pacific Axis: Peace and Prosperity or Conflict? London and New York.
  • Chellaney, B. (2017, November 17). Democratic Forces Must Join Hands to Protect Indo-Pacific from China's Hegemony. The Hindustan Times.
  • Clinton, H. (2011, July 20). Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton on India and the United States: A Vision for the 21st Century. http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/texttrans/2011/07/20110720165044su0.7134014.html#ixzz1UxWVNLPL
  • Clinton, H. (2011, October 11). America's Pacific Century. Foreign Policy. http://www.state.gov./secretary/rm/2011/10/175215.htm
  • Czaputowicz, J. (2014). Mapa współczesnego realizmu: realizm klasyczny, neorealizm, realizm neoklasyczny (Map of contemporary realism: classical realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism). In E. Haliżak, & J. Czaputowicz (Eds.), Teoria realizmu w nauce o stosunkach międzynarodowych. Założenie i zastosowania badawcze (The theory of Realism in the International Relations Science. Assumption and Research Applications) (pp. 25–42). Warszawa.
  • Ensuring Secure Seas: Maritime Security Strategy. (2015). Indian Navy. https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/sites/default/files/Indian_Maritime_Security_Strategy_Document_25Jan16.pdf
  • Ganguly, S. (2017). Has Modi truly changed India's Foreign Policy? The Washington Quarterly, 2, 132.
  • Garge, R. (2017). Maritime Outreach as Part of India's 'Act East' Policy. Australian Journal of Maritime & Ocean Affairs, 3, 150–167.
  • Gopal, D., & Ahlawat (Eds.) (2016). Indo-Pacific: Emerging Powers, Evolving Regions and Challenges to Global Governance. New Delhi.
  • Gupta, A. (2006). US-India-China: Assessing Tripolarity. China Report, 1, 78.
  • R. 2810, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, 115th Congress (2017-2018). www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2810/text
  • Haliżak, E. (1999). Stosunki Międzynarodowe w regionie Azji i Pacyfiku (International Relations in the Asia-Pacific region). Warszawa.
  • Hall, I. (2016). Multialignment and Indian Foreign Policy under Narendra Modi. The Round Table. The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 3, 271–286.
  • https://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/34318/joint+statement+from+quad+leaders
  • https://mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/34317/prime+ministers+opening+remarks+at+quad
  • https://media.defense.gov/2019/Jul/01/2002152311/-1/-1/1/DEPARTMENT-OF-DEFENSE-INDO-PACIFIC-STRATEGY-REPORT-2019.PDF
  • Inaugural India-US Maritime Security Dialogue. (2016, May 18). Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. http://www.mea.gov.in/press-releases.htm?dtl/26829/Inaugural+IndiaUS+Maritine+Security+Dialogue
  • India as "Global Swing State": A New Framework for U.S. Engagement with India. (2013). The National Bureau of Asian Research. https://www.nbr.org/publication/india-as-a-global-swing-state-a-new-framework-for-u-s-engagement-with-india
  • India-Australia-Japan-U.S. Consultations. (2018, November 15). Press Releases. Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. https://www.mea.gov.in/press-releases.htm?dtl/30593/IndiaAustraliaJapanUS_Consultations
  • Jackson, P.T. (2011). The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations: Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for the Study of World Politics. London.
  • Jaishankar, S. (2021, January 28). Keynote Address by External Affairs Minister. 13th All India Conference of Chinese Studies. Ministry of External Affairs. https://mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/33419
  • Joint Statement (United States and India: Prosperity Through Partnership). (2017, June 27). https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings.statements/united-states-india-prosperity-partnership
  • Joint Statement from Quad Leaders (2021, September 24). Quad Leaders' Joint Statement: "The Spirit of the Quad". https://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/33620/quad+leaders+joint+statement+the+spirit+of+the+quad
  • Kai, He. (2008). Institutional Balancing and International Balancing Theory: Economic Interdependence and Balance of Power Strategies in Southeast Asia. European Journal of International Relations, 3, 489–518.
  • Kapila, S. (2020). China is an implacable enemy of India - pretending otherwise is strategic myopia. South Asia Analysis Group.
  • Kaura, V. (2019). Incorporating Indo-Pacific and the Quadrilateral into India's strategic outlook. Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India, 2, 78–102.
  • Kaura, V. (2021). India's Quadrilateral conundrum. India Review, 3, 322–347.
  • Khurana, G.S. (2016, September 8). Indo-US Logistics Agreement LEMOA: An Assessment. National Maritime Foundation (NMF). http://maritimeindia.org/View%20Profile/636089093519640938.pdf
  • Kozub-Karku, M. (2020). Realizm neoklasyczny w perspektywie teorii stosunków międzynarodowych i polityki zagranicznej (Neoclassical Realism in International Relations and Foreign Policy Theories Perspectives). Kraków.
  • Lalwani, S., & Byrne, H. (2019). Great Expectations: Asking Too Much of the US-India Strategic Partnership. The Washington Quarterly, 3, 41–64.
  • Madan, T. (2020). Not Your Mother's Cold War: India's Options in US-China Competition. The Washington Quarterly, 4, 53.
  • Mishra, V. (2017). Indo-US Security Cooperation: Implications for the Indian Ocean. Maritime Affairs. Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India, 1, 77.
  • Mukherjee, R. (2020). Chaos as opportunity: the United States and world order in India's Grand Strategy. Contemporary Politics, 4, 429.
  • National Defense Strategy, 2018. (2018). Department of Defense. Washington.
  • National Security Strategy of the United States of America. (2017, December). https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf
  • New Defense Bill Underscores U.S. Shift to Indo-Pacific Strategy. (2018, May 8). Xinhua.
  • Oertel, J., Small, A., & Studdart, A. (2018). The Liberal Order in the Indo-Pacific. Asia Programme, The German Marshall Fund, 13.
  • Paik, W., & Park, J.J. (2021). The QUAD's Search for Non-Military Roles and China's Strategic Response: Minilateralism, Infrastructure Investment, and Regional Balancing. Journal of Contemporary China, 127, 36–52.
  • Pan, Ch. (2014). The 'Indo-Pacific' and Geopolitical Anxieties about China's Rise in the Asian Regional Order. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 4, 453–469.
  • Panda, J.P. (2018). India's Call on China in the QUAD: A Strategic Arch Between Liberal and Alternative Structures. Rising Powers Quarterly, 2, 83–111.
  • Pant H.V., & Saha, P. (2020). India, China, and the Indo-Pacific: New Delhi's Recalibration Is Underway. The Washington Quarterly, 4, 180.
  • Pant, H.V. (2019). The India-US-China triangle from New Delhi: overcoming the "hesitations of the history. India Review, 4, 394.
  • Pant, K.C. (1989, July 1). Philosophy of Indian Defense. Address to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Pant, R.H.V., & Rej, A. (2018). Is India ready for the Indo-Pacific? Washington Quarterly, 2, 47–61.
  • Pattanaik, S.S. (2016). Indian Ocean in the Emerging Geo-strategic Context: Examining India's Relations with its Maritime South Asian Neighbors. Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, 2, 126–142.
  • Paul, J. (2019). US and India: Emerging offshore balancing in Asia. India Review, 3, 221–242.
  • Paul, T.V., & Underwood, E. (2019). Theorizing India-US-China strategic triangle. India Review, 4, 348–367.
  • Powell, N. (2012, February 7). Statement (to Senate Foreign Affairs Committee) of 7 February 2012.
  • Prime Minister's address at Global Summit on Supply Chain Resilience, https://mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/34458/prime+ministers+address+at+global+summit+on+supply+chain+resilience
  • Prime Minister's Keynote Address at Shangri La Dialogue. (2018). Ministry of External Affairs. https://www.mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/29943/Prime+Ministers+Keynote+Address+at+Shangri+La+Dialogue+June+01+2018
  • Prime Minister's opening remarks at QUAD, 24 September 2021, Ministry of External Affairs. (2021).
  • Quadrennial Defense Review 2014. (2014). Department of Defense. United States of America, Washington.
  • Rai, A. (2018). Quadrilateral Security Dialogue 2 (QUAD 2.0) – a credible strategic construct or mere 'foam in the ocean'? Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India, 2, 138–148.
  • Raja Mohan, C. (2006, July/August). India and Balance of Power. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/asia/2006-07-01/india-and-balance-power
  • Rose, G. (1998). Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy. World Politics, 1, 144–172.
  • Roy-Chaudhury, R., & Sullivan de Estrada, K. (2018). India, the Indo-Pacific and the Quad. Survival, 3, 181–194.
  • Sarkar, J. (2015, March 6). Strategic Passing: Why India will not be Pakistan 2.0 in U.S. Asia Policy. Foreign Policy.
  • Scott, D. (2018). The Indo-Pacific in US Strategy: Responding to Power Shifts. Rising Powers Quarterly, 2, 34.
  • Scott, D. (2021). India's China's Challenge: Foreign Policy Dilemmas Post-Galwan and Post-Covid. The Journal of Indian and Asian Studies, 2. DOI: 10.1142/S2717541321400039
  • SEC 1262, Enhancing Defense and Security Cooperation with India, H.R. 4909, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, 114th Congress (2015-2016). www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/4909/text
  • Singh, S. (2014). From a Sub-Continental Power to an Asia-Pacific Player: India's Changing Identity. India Review, 3, 187-211.
  • Singh, S. (2017, January 19). US, Indian Navies Sharing Information on Chinese Subs, Says Pacific Command Chief. Indian Express.
  • Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense. (2012). Department of Defense. United States of America, Washington.
  • Tandon, A. (2016). India's Foreign Policy Priorities and the Emergence of a Modi Doctrine. Strategic Analysis, 5, 349–356.
  • Tokarski, S., & Bhutani, S. (2007). Nowoczesne Indie. Wyzwania rozwoju (Modern India. Development Challenges). Warszawa.
  • S. – India Joint Strategic Vision for the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean Region. (2015, January 25). Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), Government of India. http://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/24728/USIndia_Joint_Strategic_Vision_for_the_AsiaPacific_and_Indian_Ocean_Region
  • S.-India Joint Leaders' Statement: A Partnership for Global Good. (2021, September 24). https://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/34320/usindia+joint+leaders+statement++a+partnership+for+global+good+september+24+2021
  • White T. J. (2019). Navigating two Asias: how Washington deals with the Indo-Pacific's rising powers. India Review, 4, 407–436.
  • Willard, R. (2012, January 27). Asia-Pacific U.S. Military Overview.
  • Wohlforth, W. (1994). Realism and the End of the Cold War. International Security, 3, 91–129.
  • Zajączkowski, J. (2011). Czynnik amerykański w indyjskiej strategii międzynarodowej u progu XXI wieku – w kierunku strategicznego partnerstwa? In J. Nakonieczna, & J. Zajączkowski (Eds.), Azja Wschodnia i Azja Południowa w stosunkach międzynarodowych (pp. 487–508). Warszawa.
  • Zajączkowski, J. (2015). Strategie morskie Indii, Chin i USA w regionie Oceanu Indyjskiego (Maritime Strategies of India, China and the USA in the Indian Ocean Region). Stosunki Międzynarodowe-International Relations, 2, 37–70.

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart