Published online: 31 May 2021
Final submission: 8 February 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Anna Kobierecka
E-mail: anna.kobierecka@uni.lodz.pl
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2492-6452
Source: Show
Page no: 15
Pages: 9-23
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202101
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202101.pdf

Streszczenie:

The People’s Republic of China is one of the states focusing intensively on building its soft power and shaping its international image. However, China’s image is still negative and primarily based on stereotypes. In recent years, this country is willing to change such perceptions and present itself as an efficient, intensively developing, capable country that is much more than just a global production plant. The article aims to review China’s different manifestations of development aid regarding changing this type of public diplomacy and its meaning to the Chinese government. Is it only motivated by good intentions, or maybe its goal is to only provide an advantage to China? It is evident that owing to significant development, China needs to expand its economic contacts. However, the tested hypothesis states that behind Chinese development aid, political motivation is hidden as well. The research is based on content analysis of official documents and Foreign Ministry’s statements referring to development aid.

development aid People’s Republic of China soft power public diplomacy China

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Published online: 10 June 2021
Final submission: 9 September 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Małgorzata Polkowska
E-mail: mpolkowska@wp.pl
Institution: War Studies Academy (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6633-2222
Source: Show
Page no: 11
Pages: 159-169
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202103
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202103.pdf

Streszczenie:

Space Traffic Management (STM) is a new concept referring to space activities. The highest priority is the safety and security of outer space and all conducted operations. There is no definition of STM. There is an urgent need to regulate STM providing safety and security regulations at the international, regional, and national levels. Because there is no STM definition, the regulator might use the example of existing regulations of the International Civil Aviation Organization on Air Traffic Management (ATM). European EUSST is a good example of being a “precursor” of STM. However, many questions are still open regarding specific regulations needed to create an STM system, such as at which level they should be made: globally, regionally, or nationally.

national legislation code of conduct space management space debris SSA

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Published online: 10 June 2021
Final submission: 1 August 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Eric Pomès
E-mail: epomes@ices.fr
Institution: Vendée Catholic University (ICES) (France)
Author: Jean-Marc Coicaud
E-mail: jeanmarc.coicaud@rutgers.edu
Institution: Rutgers University, State University of New Jersey (USA)
Source: Show
Page no: 18
Pages: 25-42
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202104
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202104.pdf

Streszczenie:

The China Sea connects as many coastal states as it divides due to the economic and strategic challenges it represents. It also embodies an area of confrontations between the Great American and Chinese strategies. Identifying with precision the differences that arise requires an interest in the symbolic dimensions that surround them. This angle of analysis provides an opportunity to observe the functioning of international law and inevitably leads to a discussion of the emerging international order. The literature on the situation in the China Sea abounds. The paper’s singularity is to approach it under the prism of international law as revealing the psychology of an actor. To carry out this research, the authors use a pragmatic and critical approach to international law. The thesis defended shows that, contrary to a positivist and judicial approach to international law, elements exogenous to the law, the history, and the psychology of an actor, influence the interpretation of existing norms.

elements exogenous to the law liberal/illiberal hegemony interpretations territorial disputes South China Sea emotions international law

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 17 July 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Michał Lubina
E-mail: michallubina@wp.pl
Institution: Jagiellonian University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3342-1763
Source: Show
Page no: 3
Pages: 173-175
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202110
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202110.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book Review: Chosein Yamahata, Sueo Sudo, Takashi Matsugi (Eds.), Rights and Security in India, Myanmar, and Thailand, Singapore 2020.

Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 30 May 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Robert Gawłowski
E-mail: robert.gawlowski@wsb.bydgoszcz.pl
Institution: WSB University in Toruń (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3419-7679
Author: Mariusz Kubiak
E-mail: kubmar11@gazeta.pl
Institution: Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6757-5509
Author: Juliusz Piwowarski
E-mail: rektor@apeiron.edu.pl
Institution: The University of Public and Individual Security “Apeiron” (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9196-1194
Author: Dariusz Minkiewicz
E-mail: dary@op.pl
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0000-0000-0001
Source: Show
Page no: 17
Pages: 91-107
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202111
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202111.pdf

Streszczenie:

In many countries, the police, as a part of public administration, have witnessed many changes during the last few years. This article explores the process of the reform of the Polish police force, which took place between 2015 and 2017. Doing so examines in detail the process of implementing an IT tool – The National Security Threat Map – by paying particular attention to the mechanism of engaging external stakeholders. This study is conceptual but empirically focused. The paper posits that, despite the hierarchical nature of the police administration structure, it is possible to build an engagement of external stakeholders.

IT tolls local security community policing public policy

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 30 April 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Marek Górka
E-mail: marek.gorka@tu.koszalin.pl
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6964-1581
Source: Show
Page no: 19
Pages: 71-89
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202112
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202112.pdf

Streszczenie:

The cybersecurity issue discussed in the paper is seen from the perspective of political science with the indication that the subject under discussion concerns the multifaceted nature of the state’s actions, which consists of political, economic, social, and cultural factors. At the same time, the work also intends to prove that cybersecurity is not only a domain of technology because it is the mentioned aspects that shape the conditions of stable development of the state and its citizens in a space dominated by cyber technology in a much more decisive way. Given the growing role of cybertechnology in almost all areas of human life, its importance also forces and inspires political science to question the shape and model of modern policy, which is significantly evolving under the influence of new technologies. On the one hand, emerging cyber threats reveal the weakness of the state and the dependence of state institutions on cybertechnologies, but on the other hand, existing cyber incidents may also motivate many governments to take action to increase the level of cybersecurity.

cybersecurity policy cybersecurity political theory international relations

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 28 April 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Joanna Rak
E-mail: joanna.rak@amu.edu.pl
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0505-3684
Source: Show
Page no: 4
Pages: 177-180
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202114
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202114.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book review: Bartosz Bolechów, Gdy światło się mroczy: Światopogląd Państwa Islamskiego w perspektywie teorii opanowywania trwogi, Toruń 2020, pp. 276.

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 7 July 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Wioleta Gierszewska
E-mail: wioleta.gierszewska@ug.edu.pl
Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5024-9379
Author: Benjamin Mudaheranwa
E-mail: benothmar@gmail.com
Institution: Christian University of Rwanda (Rwanda)
Source: Show
Page no: 10
Pages: 109-118
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202115
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202115.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article aims to indicate the sources of problems in the field of governance and politics in the African Great Lakes Region. The countries of this region play an essential role in the global socio-political and economic system. Their development is hampered by numerous external and internal conflicts resulting from both the historical and contemporary problems of the countries. Colonialism had a major impact on the development of African countries. It manifested itself, among other things, in the spread of political domination. Adopting state management patterns from European culture and attempt to transplant them on African ground without understanding local cultural conditions contributed too much post-colonial fresh and modern conflict. Examples of this are failures to establish liberal democracy and its crises in the African Great Lakes Region.

African Polities African crisis African Great Lakes region politics democracy elections governance

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 15 December 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Karina Verónica Val Sánchez
E-mail: kafkakun@gmail.com
Institution: Selcuk University-Konya (Turkey)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7036-3523
Author: Nezir Akyesilmen
E-mail: nezmen@yahoo.com
Institution: Selcuk University-Konya (Turkey)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8184-5280
Source: Show
Page no: 27
Pages: 43-69
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202116
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202116.pdf

Streszczenie:

This paper highlighted the use of cyberspace as a conflict zone by the US and China, focusing on competition in various technological spheres, including cyberespionage, military technology, and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The main purpose of this study was to depict how great powers manipulate the cyber domain for their high political objectives through US-China rivalry. The research has been carried out mainly via literature review, discourse analysis, and relevant statistics. Consistent with previous literature and global public perception, the outcome has shown that both states are using cyberspace as a new domain for completion in trade, technology, and military purposes. Cyberespionage, the militarization of cyberspace, and AI have been the main conflict areas between these two global competitors in the last decade.

cyberespionage militarization of cyberspace artificial intelligence USA China

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Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 12 March 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Joanna Siekiera
E-mail: joanna.siekiera@uib.no
Institution: University of Bergen (Norway)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0125-9121
Source: Show
Page no: 11
Pages: 147-157
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202117
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202117.pdf

Streszczenie:

Sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea became a key topic for the negotiations since the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro. Ocean change is now the most significant threat facing humanity, especially those living in coastal areas. The possible and already observed loss of territory, and thus sovereignty of the submerged states, is not the only legal consequence of ocean change happening now, in the 21st century. Another factor is the downsizing of Exclusive Economic Zones, which implies political tensions between the neighboring countries, both sovereign and dependent territories of the former colonial powers. France is present in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean via its overseas collectivities. Thus, instead of being at the 45th position in the world’s ranking of the ocean powers, the Republic of France comes in the second position, straight after the United States of America. This high and indeed precious position, both geostrategically and economically, affects its views toward the United Nations negotiations process on biological diversity beyond national jurisdiction.

BBNJ maritime biodiversity ocean maritime biodiversity France

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