Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 14 June 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Gabriel Nowacki
E-mail: gabriel.nowacki@wat.edu.pl
Institution: Military University of Technology (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5357-8824
Source: Show
Page no: 20
Pages: 113-132
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202121
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202121.pdf

Streszczenie:

This work presents the methodology of the Russian impact on Latvia after 1991. It defines and specifies the scope of methods concerning both the hard and soft power in international relations in the 21st century, particularly the ones used to implement the Russian Federation’s foreign policy. The implemented strategies and impact models are described. The work is also focused on certain indicators used in global rankings by experts worldwide. In the 21st century, it is no longer enough to employ the hard power methods as it is advisable to use the soft power ones, which may bring about much better results than the hard ones.

soft impact (soft power) hard impact (hard power) international security Russia

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Published online: 30 June 2021
Final submission: 12 June 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Lech Wyszczelski
Institution: War Studies Academy (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2063-4281
Source: Show
Page no: 3
Pages: 177-179
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202123
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202123.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book Review: Magdalena Molendowska, Rafał Miernik (Eds.), Bezpieczeństwo w cyberprzestrzeni. Wybrane zagadnienia, Toruń 2020, pp. 328

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Published online: 30 June 2021
Final submission: 12 March 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Małgorzata Polkowska
E-mail: mpolkowska@wp.pl
Institution: War Studies Academy (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6633-2222
Source: Show
Page no: 16
Pages: 133-148
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202124
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202124.pdf

Streszczenie:

SDA (Space Domain Awareness) and SSA (Space Situational Awareness – SSA) have been defined as comprehensive knowledge of space objects and the ability to track, understand, and predict their future location. The purpose of the article is to present SSA initiatives to protect space systems, which are now recognized as fundamental assets of the sustainable development of each country. The destruction of even a part of the space infrastructure can have severe consequences for the security of citizens and economic activity. These systems assume the combination of all data obtained by various entities operating in space and Earth to create a common database. The SSA system was created based on the US military programme SDA (Space Domain Awareness); SSA and SDA are almost similar, but SDA is a new term replacing SSA, which existed previously. SDA is a better and improved SSA. Increasingly, the SSA programme is part of national and EU space strategies, but it is not yet possible to include it in international space law.

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Published online: 30 June 2021
Final submission: 18 June 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Author: Janusz Gierszewski
E-mail: janusz.gierszewski@apsl.edu.pl
Institution: Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8420-7900
Author: Andrzej Pieczywok
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4531-0630
Source: Show
Page no: 14
Pages: 63-76
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202126
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202126.pdf

Streszczenie:

The publication aims to analyze public security and public order in conceptual and institutional terms as an analytical category of security sciences. The legislator defines neither public security nor public order. So far, they have been treated mainly as categories of administrative law. It is therefore important to assign them analytical content in the new scientific discipline. The research results allowed for the presentation of the thesis that public security and public order are mainly connected with protection against pathological phenomena occurring in the public space, which are minimized by institutions established to ensure it. These categories should constitute the research field (subject) of the security sciences. The research problem formulated in the form of the question: How are public security and public order treated in definitional and institutional terms? The problem was solved based on a critical analysis of the literature. The paper uses theoretical research methods, including analysis of literature and phenomena occurring in society and inference – as a cognitive factor of the subject of analysis. A critical analysis of the literature on this issue played a large role in the cognitive process.

research subject public security and public order security sciences

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