Published online: 25 September 2021
Final submission: 16 September 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Bartosz Kozicki
E-mail: bartosz.kozicki@wat.edu.pl
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6089-952X
Author: Jarosław Zelkowski
E-mail: jaroslaw.zelkowski@wat.edu.pl
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6698-2938
Author: Szymon Mitkow
E-mail: szymon.mitkow@wat.edu.pl
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2845-2589
Author: Mariusz Gontarczyk
E-mail: mgontarczyk@wat.edu.pl
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1512-4092
Source: Show
Page no: 10
Pages: 149-158
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202147
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202147.pdf

Streszczenie:

The study concerns forecasting the number of soldiers in the Saudi Arabian army based on information obtained from the website: https://data.worldbank.org (The World Bank, 9.03.2020). The research began with a comparative analysis of the number of soldiers in the armies of Saudi Arabia and Russia. The idea for a comparative analysis of the number of armies of Saudi Arabia and the Russian Federation arises from Russian policy in the region of the Middle East countries, including the impact on world oil prices. The comparative analysis showed the similarities and differences in the dynamics of changes in the number of both armies dynamically. Subsequently, the primary time series data analysis on the number of Saudi Arabian troops was performed. The study selected methods for predicting raw data: Holt’s exponential smoothing and Klein’s model for the future. The next stage of the research was forecasting and the analysis and evaluation of the obtained forecasts. Klein’s model was the best forecasting model. The forecast of the number of soldiers in the Saudi Arabian army for 2020 is 251454, and for 2021, it has increased to 251006. The study ends with a summary and conclusions.

Russia’s policy the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia forecasting human resources policy military security

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Published online: 19 July 2021
Final submission: 12 July 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Michał Kubiak
E-mail: michal.kubiak@ug.edu.pl
Institution: University of Gdańsk
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4231-8071
Source: Show
Page no: 18
Pages: 175-192
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202142
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202142.pdf

Streszczenie:

Among many demographic changes, one of the most evident now is the aging of the population, the consequences of which are increasingly leaving a mark on the directions of social policy. In connection with the aging of the population and positive aspects, manifestations of ageism, based on stereotypes and negative attitudes toward older people, are also more and more noticeable. Sometimes, these are discriminatory practices against older people encountered in the health sector, the labor market, public offices, and others. The research presented in the article aimed to identify age discrimination and its manifestations among older people. The purposive sampling technique was used to choose the research sample – the assumption was to examine active older people related to a large city who get involved and participate in various activities and projects carried out for them by nongovernmental organizations. The method of a diagnostic survey with a questionnaire, which included both closed and open-ended questions, was used in the research. The research was intended to help answer the following questions: do older people notice age discrimination, and have they experienced worse treatment because of their age? How many of the surveyed seniors experienced worse treatment and what forms (most often) did it take, and where did it happen?

older people age discrimination senior policy ageism aging stereotypes old age social policy

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Published online: 25 September 2021
Final submission: 23 August 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Marcin Czyżniewski
E-mail: mcz@umk.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3227-0035
Source: Show
Page no: 12
Pages: 81-92
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202143
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202143.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article aims to analyze disputes and discussions on the powers of the President of the Republic, which have been happening since the establishment of the Czech Republic in 1993. These occurred when the President tried to interpret the provisions of the Constitution, took actions beyond their framework, or considered that his powers did not impose an obligation to act automatically. The disputes over the President’s powers were, therefore, not the result of theoretical discussions on the constitutional order of the Czech Republic, but were the result of the President’s involvement in the political life of the country, and above all, the decisions that did not correspond to the opinions and actions of the government. Disputes did not have an impact on a permanent change in the constitutional order. For example, there was no reason for an amendment to the Constitution that would extend, restrict, or clarify those powers.

presidential powers Constitution executive power Czech Republic political system

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Published online: 25 September 2021
Final submission: 13 August 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Nagmeldin Karamalla-Gaiballa
E-mail: karamalla@gmail.com
Institution: University of Commerce and Services
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7613-3334
Author: Siham El-Kafafi
Institution: Arrows Research Consultancy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5480-451X
Source: Show
Page no: 12
Pages: 7-18
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202144
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202144.pdf

Streszczenie:

This research paper explores the impact of sociological perspectives on the relationship between natural resources and conflicts. From these theoretical perspectives, many fundamental sources of conflict over natural resources are identified and defined. This research takes the approach of a case study in which the researchers investigate and analyze the sources of conflict happening in the Darfur region of Sudan. This case study explores the demographic changes, economic development, and social inequality among some factors contributing to conflict over resources in this region. The research findings demonstrated that various factors play a vital role in the availability of natural resources, which is the main reason sides other reasons flaring conflict in the Darfur region in Sudan. These factors are related to climate change, destruction of ecosystems, immigration, demographic change, and political changes. Even though various factors could impact the conflict of resources in the Darfur region in Sudan, these researchers focused in this research paper on the sociological perspective only.

demographic change social inequality economic development natural resources Darfur conflict

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Published online: 25 September 2021
Final submission: 3 August 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Iwona Hofman
E-mail: ihofman@wp.pl
Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0492-5169
Source: Show
Page no: 12
Pages: 193-204
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202145
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202145.pdf

Streszczenie:

The purpose of the article is to describe the model and method of management of the Literary Institute and “Kultura” by Jerzy Giedroyc using the categories of circles, networks, and relations, verifying in this way the editor’s legend. The analysis covered the entire period of the Institute’s operation (1946-2000), comparing the internal periodization of the activity with the changes of the authors in the “Kultura” circle, which made it possible to distinguish between the friendly and home circle and three authors’ circles. The diaries, biographies, and letters provided the grounds to emphasize the significance of the network for building the position of “Kultura” as an opinion-forming magazine and a place of help for emigrant writers. Managing “Kultura” is presented, which is focused on creating relations and being objective. Synthesis, content analysis, and comparative methods have been used. This problem has not been discussed so far in the extensive literature on the subject.

“Kultura” authors the Literary Institute letters Jerzy Giedroyc Editors

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Published online: 18 October 2021
Final submission: 8 August 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Teresa Usewicz
E-mail: t.usewicz@gmail.com
Institution: Polish Naval Academy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6234-224X
Author: Kinga Torbicka
E-mail: kinga.torbicka@uw.edu.pl
Institution: University of Warsaw
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6625-5060
Author: Magdalena El Ghamari
E-mail: magdalena.elghamari@civitas.edu.pl
Institution: Collegium Civitas
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5798-7545
Source: Show
Page no: 27
Pages: 33-59
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202149
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202149.pdf

Streszczenie:

In this paper, the authors attempt to prove that the Polish position on developing the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) was skeptical, despite entries in political and strategic documents which emphasized its great significance for Polish security policy. It is evidenced by Poland’s low level of involvement in EU missions and operations and other undertakings in the CSDP area. The central hypothesis adopted at the beginning of the research is that Poland has always treated security and defense within the European Union as a kind of complement to the potential and capabilities developed within the framework of the North Atlantic Alliance, and the Polish involvement in CSDP has never been adequate to the provisions contained in political and strategic documents. Poland’s stance resulted, on the one hand, from the weakness of the CSDP’s political framework, which was shaped by numerous compromises among its member states, and on the other hand, from the political elite’s conviction that only NATO’s, and de facto the United States’, security guarantees are credible. In this paper, the authors analyze Poland’s previous experience resulting from polish participation in the policy in question and the evolution of Poland’s position toward its development in the context of the Republic of Poland’s security interests formulated in political and strategic documents.

security interests Common security and defense policy European Union Poland

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Published online: 2 November 2021
Final submission: 12 October 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Marcin Grabowski
E-mail: marcin.grabowski@uj.edu.pl
Institution: Jagiellonian University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1447-1818
Source: Show
Page no: 11
Pages: 95-105
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202152
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202152.pdf

Streszczenie:

The election of Joseph Biden for the office of the President of the United States has brought expectations of fundamental change in American foreign policy, including policy toward the Asia-Pacific/Indo-Pacific region. As observed in the last few months, the reality has been more complex as definite changes in the US Indo-Pacific policy are not as visible as expected. It is especially in respect of the US policy toward China being more a continuation than a change from Donald Trump’s approach. Changes are rhetorical rather than actual policies. The situation is different in the case of alliances, as Joe Biden offers much more commitment to allies like Japan or South Korea. Also, multilateral dimensions (both regional and global) witness some – however still limited – change. The main goal is to make a comparative analysis of Joe Biden’s policy toward Asia, referring to the administrations of Barack Obama and Donald Trump. Hence the strategies of pivot/re-balance toward the Asia of Obama, and the free and open Indo-Pacific strategy of Trump, will be examined. The analysis refers to the complex interdependence theory and the power transition theory. Methodologically, it is based on document analysis with comparative analysis.

Asia-Pacific Joe Biden Indo - Pacific Donald Trump Barack Obama United States

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Published online: 2 November 2021
Final submission: 23 September 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Krzysztof Wasilewski
E-mail: krzys.wasilewski@gmail.com
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology
ORCID: 0000-0002-5378-2822
Source: Show
Page no: 20
Pages: 61-80
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202153
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202153.pdf

Streszczenie:

As both the European Union and its member states acknowledge that the proliferation of fake news threatens their political stability and – consequently – the general idea of European integration – they have undertaken many steps to confront that problem. Them, the article examines how EU institutions, together with the member states, have tackled the spread of disinformation within the common policy of cybersecurity. The novelty of this study is that it does so concerning the ongoing process of Europeanization of cyberspace, combining the field of information technology with European studies.

fake news public sphere European Union Europeanization cybersecurity

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Published online: 2 November 2021
Final submission: 14 November 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Justyna Maliszewska-Nienartowicz
E-mail: mal-nie@umk.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8266-3104
Author: Marcin Kleinowski
E-mail: kleinowski@umk.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4613-5886
Source: Show
Page no: 14
Pages: 19-32
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202155
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202155.pdf

Streszczenie:

Although the rule of law is a normative notion, it requires a multidimensional approach. It speaks to important issues of law and politics, and its respect is essential for both legal and social security. It can be observed within the European Union (EU) where the issue of respect for the rule of law by its Member States has gained particular importance. The main goal of our study is to contribute to the academic discourse concerning the EU rule of law. The analysis particularly considers the approaches adopted by the EU institutions to the definition of this concept. Consequently, the first part of the article concentrates on difficulties in defining the rule of law. The second part presents the evolution of the Court of Justice approach toward this concept. The next part contains the analysis of the attitudes presented by other EU institutions in their documents. In the conclusions, it is underlined that although the approaches of the EU institutions towards the rule of have evolved, and they have tried to define it and indicate its main components, certain issues require clarification, e.g., the relations of the rule of law with other values.

'A new EU Framework to strengthen the Rule of Law' ASJM case Les Verts case the EU rule of law and substantive approaches to the rule of law

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Published online: 17 December 2021
Final submission: 28 November 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Author: Mirosława Jaworowska
E-mail: miroslawajaw@gmail.com
Institution: Main School of Fire Service
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3870-9336
Source: Show
Page no: 13
Pages: 161-173
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202156
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202156.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Author has demonstrated that Samoan youth is not indifferent to cultural universals, despite attempting to co-create them in the course of a multi-cultural dialogue and globalization processes. The study was founded on research results conducted through local observations and a questionnaire distributed among students of the Faculty of Education at the National University of Samoa in Apia. The research aimed to learn about the opinions, aspirations, attitudes, and value systems of Samoan students as they represent the educated elite of the 21st-century generation. The interviewed approve of contemporary civilizational novelties, as long as those do not harm the traditional culture. The socialization process in the Samoan youth has been occurring on a borderland between upbringing, traditional family-tribal, and the modern state-citizen education in schools and social life. Family and traditional customs are still vivid despite being more open to contemporary civilization and state developments. Although cautious towards novelties that might threaten the Samoan culture, these attitudes may be assessed as a reformatory. Based on the results obtained in Samoa, it is justifiable to state that the process of cultural transformation universalization has been occurring there in many areas of reality.

universalization system transformation generation of civilizational advancement emancipation generation culture of security culture clash value system cultural transformation

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