Author: Joanna Siekiera
Institution: University of Bergen (Norway)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0125-9121
Published online: 30 June 2021
Final submission: 12 March 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 9
Pages: 19-27
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202125
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202125_2.pdf

Streszczenie:

Cooperation in the South Pacific region is unique due to the characteristics of its participants. Following the period of decolonization (1962-1980), countries in Oceania have radically changed. Achieving independence gave those nations international legal personality, yet complete independence from their former colonial powers. The following consequence was gaining an opportunity to draft, adopt and execute own laws in national and foreign policy. PICT (Pacific island countries and territories) have been expanding connections, political and trade ones, within the region since the 1960s when permanent migration of islanders and intra-regional transactions began. Migrations along with foreign aid are considered as the distinctive characteristics of the Pacific Ocean basin. Since the 1980s, the regional integration in Oceania, through establishing regional groupings and increasing the regional trade agreements number, took on pace and scope. The MIRAB synthetic measure (migration, remittances, aid, bureaucracy) has been used in analyzing the Oceania developing microeconomies. Last but not least, migration and foreign aid have been retaining the region from a deeper and more effective stage of regionalism.

foreign aid South Pacific Regional Cooperation Pacific Oceania migration

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Author: Oskar Schaefer
Institution: Leiden University (Netherlands)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1504-8977
Published online: 30 June 2021
Final submission: 26 May 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 6
Pages: 90-95
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202127
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202127_7.pdf

Streszczenie:

Following the fall of the so-called Islamic State in March 2019, tens of thousands of its fighters, along with their wives and children, were captured and detained in facilities controlled by Syrian Democratic Forces in northeast Syria. Many of which were European. Based on the information provided by scientific institutes and journalists, the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic had had a significant impact on the functioning of those facilities. Not only did it aggravate an already severe humanitarian crisis, pushing the detainees to reinforce their attempts of escaping and rioting against the guards, but it also lowered the security level in the controlled facilities, allowing a flourishing of criminal activities. Furthermore, the detainment of ISIS followers turned into a political game between the Kurdish coalition and the United States. The global health crisis put to the test the strategy of many Western governments of keeping European ISIS fighters in the Middle East while pressuring the international community to rethink its approach towards this crescent problem.

Syrian Democratic Forces foreign terrorist fighters humanitarian crisis COVID-19 pandemic Islamic State

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Author: Michał Lubina
Institution: Jagiellonian University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3342-1763
Published online: 19 July 2021
Final submission: 2 July 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 4
Pages: 122-125
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202141
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202141_10.pdf

Streszczenie:

Author: Bartosz Kozicki
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6089-952X
Author: Jarosław Zelkowski
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6698-2938
Author: Szymon Mitkow
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2845-2589
Author: Mariusz Gontarczyk
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1512-4092
Published online: 17 December 2021
Final submission: 12 November 2021
Printed issue: 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 8
Pages: 61-68
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202204
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202204_5.pdf

Streszczenie:

The study attempts to forecast military expenditure in Saudi Arabia for 2020. The research began with a comparative analysis of military expenditure in Saudi Arabia and Russia between 2000–2019. For this purpose, bar charts were used on which the calculated values of the dynamics indices with a fixed (2000) and movable (previous year) base of the considered primary data were outlined. The study was preceded by constructing a multiple regression model to evaluate the impact of the increase in military expenditure in Russia on Saudi Arabia. This model shows that as military spending in Russia increases by one million dollars, military spending in Saudi Arabia increases by $ 0.085 million. Then, data on the expenditure incurred by both analyzed countries in 2020, obtained from various internet sources, was outlined. Their analysis made it possible to select only qualitative methods in the form of expert opinions for the forecast. Saudi Arabia's military expenditure forecast was $ 57 500 million.

Russian and Saudi Arabian policy expenditure forecasting military security COVID-19

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Author: Gabriel Nowacki
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5357-8824
Author: Bohdan Paszukow
Institution: Aviation Security and CBRN, EDD, EU COM Working Group
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5357-8824
Published online: 18 October 2021
Final submission: 13 September 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 19
Pages: 69-87
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202148
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202148_6.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper refers to the evolution of methods, new technologies, and devices in security control processes in light of civil aviation requirements, procedures, and increased flow of passengers. The research problem has been defined as follows: How shall the international airport security controls function in the context of regulatory and operational conditions and current and future threats? In reference to the problem, the research hypothesis was defined as follows: Security control in civil aviation consists of screening persons and detecting prohibited articles and mainly depends on the professional competence of security staff and the proper selection and maintenance of electronic assistive devices. Professional competences refer to personnel’s knowledge, experience, qualification, monitoring, operational supervision, and quality control as part of their tasks. The development of new technologies requires the appropriate selection, commensurate with risk analysis, of electronic assistive devices, including equipment, methods, technical means, and their maintenance in a proper technical condition. The paper presents the results of empirical research conducted amongst experienced aviation security forums. Because of its complexity and unpredictability, this problem still leaves a wide margin for improvement and efficiency. The following research methods were used to solve the research problem: theoretical methods and empirical methods: diagnostic survey and expert interview.

civil aviation security control new technology terrorism

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Author: Mukesh Shankar Bharti
Institution: Jawaharlal Nehru University (India)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3693-7247
Published online: 20 June 2022
Final submission: 29 April 2022
Printed issue: June 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 12
Pages: 7-18
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202217
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202217_1.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article aims to describe the regional security challenges to India in South Asia. Since the partition of India in 1947, the country has continuously been under external threat as a form of proxy warfare and terrorism. For this purpose, the article highlighted the core hotspots where India has major border issues with China in the Himalayan terrain. India has been facing a bigger security challenge from China and Pakistan in the South Asia region. This article analyses the defence ties between India and France in the context of security. India's neorealist approaches expand its strategic partnership in global politics. Therefore, India has been getting strategic support from the French side whenever India seeks support in a critical situation. The article uses the methods of case study and discourse analysis to answer the question and find out the study's relevance. As a result of severe security threats, India had to negotiate the purchase of defence equipment from France. India had to buy Rafael fighter jet, submarine and other heavy military weapons. Indo-French relations are stronger than in the past and will develop as friendly relations in the future.

Regional Balance Strategic Relation South Asia Security and Defence Indo-French

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Author: Rafał Czachor
Institution: Krakowska Akademia im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5929-9719
Published online: 20 June 2022
Final submission: 4 December 2021
Printed issue: June 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 18
Pages: 30-47
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202218
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202218_3.pdf

Streszczenie:

The following paper employs a normative approach and focuses on the problem of the current state of the local self-government in the South Caucasus countries: Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Since all these countries are members of the Council of Europe, a reference point for decentralisation is the European Charter of Local Self-Government. The paper's main thesis is that despite showing some similarities, the countries have introduced different models of decentralisation that do not fully meet the Council of Europe’s criteria. Such variation is in line with the different political systems of these states and their level of democratisation. The more democratic the state is, the stronger the decentralisation it has adopted. Thus, decentralisation in Georgia follows the European model of public policy, while Azerbaijan is preserving the former Soviet model of weak self-government, with central authorities playing the leading role in public services. The current changes in Armenia’s model resemble the Georgian track of reforms. The findings of this paper may be applicable both in further theoretical research and in implementing reforms of local self-government in various post-Soviet states.

decentralisation South Caucasus democratisation

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Author: Maciej Giers
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0870-9458
Published online: 20 June 2022
Final submission: 5 November 2021
Printed issue: June 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 8
Pages: 112-119
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202219
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202219_9.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article aims to analyse the potential role that hydrogen could play in the post-pandemic recovery of Portugal and its climate policy. The article focuses on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and creating new workplaces. The basis for analysis is the Portuguese hydrogen strategy, published in May 2020 and other strategic documents. In the first part of the article, climate goals adopted by the European Union and Portugal are described and analysed. Then the hydrogen strategy of Portugal was analysed from the perspective of hydrogen contribution to the emission reduction by 2030. The article describes the role of hydrogen in the Portuguese economy, paying particular attention to the 2020–2030 horizon, but also covers a period till 2040. The second part analyses the impact of COVID-19 on the Portuguese economy. Based on the International Energy Agency’s estimates, the potential for creating new workplaces is described.

GHG emissions hydrogen COVID-19 labour market Portugal

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Author: Mariusz Popławski
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5563-5308
Published online: 20 June 2022
Final submission: 2 November 2021
Printed issue: June 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 11
Pages: 48-58
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202222
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202222_4.pdf

Streszczenie:

The participatory budget is an important element of the catalogue of tools for involving residents in the local decision-making. The positive effects of involving many citizens in the decision-making process slowly bear fruit in attempts to transfer p.b. into other spheres. This article analyses how these well-known patterns are adapted to new conditions – at universities. Several of them decided to introduce their own participatory budget. A comparative analysis of the local government model and solutions adopted by three universities provides the answer to this question. The hypothesis assumes that the civic budget at universities and polytechnics is, for the most part, a modification of the model used in cities with district status. As shown, the municipal participatory budget is a proven basis for creating its own regulations. However, the available schemes should be modified.

research institution university municipality participatory budget participation civil society

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Author: Anna Utrata
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2970-9123
Published online: 20 June 2022
Final submission: 15 November 2021
Printed issue: 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 16
Pages: 96-111
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202225
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202225_8.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article aims to answer the question about the legality of the selected measures implemented by the Polish government during the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic, which resulted in constitutional rights and freedom restrictions. The study focuses on examining selected restrictions implemented in the spring of 2020 in the light of the Polish Constitution, especially in the light of Article 31 (3), which defines the premises of limitation of citizens’ rights and freedoms. It indicates the lack of legal basis and incompatibility with constitutional premises of many restrictions. The study further examines the premises of the introduction of the state of emergency, indicating that the government's decision not to impose such a state was legal and why. The study considers legal status from March 13 to May 16, 2020.

civil and political rights pandemic state of emergency COVID-19 legality

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Author: Karolina Owczarek
Institution: University of Adam Mickiewicz (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9809-5778
Published online: 20 June 2022
Final submission: 7 June 2022
Printed issue: June 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 5
Pages: 126-130
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202226
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202226_11.pdf

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