Author: Krzysztof Pałecki
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków (Poland)
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 7-16
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009001
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200901.pdf

Streszczenie:

The ability to manage other people’s behavior has always intrigued philosophers. The fate of each human being and each community depend – in a way that is not easy to measure – on other people. Who are these “other people”? Why can they determine the direction of our thoughts and actions? What relation takes place between them, those who manage, and us, who are willing to be obedient? Which part of our social subjectivity are we willing to give up for the sake of these “others”? Such and many more important questions mark what may seem as an undefined framework of a never-ending, inconclusive discourse. However, once we decide to take an active part in this discourse, we need to take a responsibility to frame the subject matter, at the very least in a conventional manner, remaining aware that when each argument and each statement are equally relevant in terms of their content value, none is worth attention since they all are deprived of their explanatory value.

political leadership

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Author: Eugeniusz Zieliński
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 17-40
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009002
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200902.pdf

Streszczenie:

A distinctive trend developed in 19th and 20th century Europe, which saw the universalisation of principles of state political systems. This tendency expressed itself in proclaiming in the constitutions of individual states and in the practical application by European democracies of the political principles inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment. Over a period of over two centuries, the constitutions of many countries developed with a similar catalogue of principles of government, in a similar legal form. These principles express the same ideas and political values and aim at developing an identical model of government structure based on liberal-democratic ideals. It is characteristic that during the last decade of the 20th century there was a sudden increase in this tendency and the spreading of those principles to over twenty countries.

European constitutionalism constitutional law political science

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Author: Bogusław Nierenberg
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 41-46
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009003
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200903.pdf

Streszczenie:

The unethical advertising does not necessarily have to be forbidden. Sometimes a thing arousing common objection is not prohibited. The thing forbidden may only be something synonymously codified. The unethical advertisement which affects ones subconsciousness, constitutes an interesting instance. It was and has been of interest not only of scientists but also various impostors. Zigmund Freud was the one who proved that subconsciousness plays an enormous role in human’s life and may govern one’s acting without the consciousness taking part. There is nothing more tempting for advertising specialists, then and as a result, majority of countries forbids this kind of activity. In Poland as well, in “The Law Concerning Combating the Unfair Competition” (1993), such practices were prohibited. In the art. 3, law 1 it is said that by the unfair competition we understand acting against the law or against good custom if it establishes a threat or violates other contractor’s or client’s business. In the art. 16, law 1, point 4, one may read that such a deed in the advertising domain stands for the utterance, which by encouraging to purchase or to make use of particular service makes an impression of a neutral information. In particular, we mean here the so-called hidden advertisement or cryptoadvertisement. For many years the Polish legislator had not perceived it as necessary to refer to the subconscious or unethical (subliminal) advertisement.

unethical advertising Mass Media

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Author: Iwona Hofman
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 47-57
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009004
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200904.pdf

Streszczenie:

The term “Fourth Estate” is becoming more and more common and acquires various connotations. It seems that processes of mediatisation of politics and tabloidisation of the media greatly contribute to phenomenon. Numerous examples of that sort are provided by the permanent election campaigns in Poland, mutual relationship between different types of media and political public relations, as well as the relationship between the media and the ruling coalition.

public relations politics media

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Author: Sebastian Wojciechowski
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 58-72
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009005
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200905.pdf

Streszczenie:

The term ‘terrorism’ is among the most frequently used words. It accompanies us on an everyday basis. It is apparently understood in a similar manner throughout the world, but it is actually interpreted and defined in different ways. “All vogue words appear to share a similar fate: the more experiences they pretend to make transparent, the more they themselves become opaque”. Terrorism is no exception to that rule. This has become particularly apparent following the events of September 11, Bali, Madrid and London. Terrorism is characterized not only by its manifold nature and complexity but also by the problem with its definition.

definitions of terrorism terrorism

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Author: Wojciech Kostecki
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 73-89
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009006
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200906.pdf

Streszczenie:

The conviction that particularly political sphere abounds in permanent paradoxes, that they constitute its inherent attributes, was already familiar to political philosophy classics, although they expressed them in different ways. “The paradoxical mix of order and chaos compelled the Greeks to seek out more creative, inclusive and reflexive modes of thought and action”. One of them, Socrates, talked about “the true political craft”, that is a rejection of politics, and at the same time, its admission. The paradoxical features of politics that arise from human nature were examined by Thomas Hobbes. Jean-Jacques Rousseau observed the paradoxes that underlie the act of free will declaration. Carl Schmitt paid attention to the internal paradox of democracy, pointing out that despite the conditions of declared citizens equality, the policy is dominated by inequalities deriving from other spheres, particularly economy.

political paradox political philosophy political theory

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Author: Maria Marczewska–Rytko
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 90-103
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009007
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200907.pdf

Streszczenie:

Introductorily, it should be observed that the discussed problem’s significance is increasingly pressing as our interest drifts towards societies dominated by great, universalizing religions Islam being only one of them. From the above, a question arises of whether the notions of religion and democracy, as mentioned in the title, are reconcilable within a single order in the first place. In his deliberations, Bohdan Chwedeńczyk inclines to the view that three types of relations may be distinguished in this respect: religion favours democracy; is indifferent to democracy; or is harmful to democracy. The discussion of the above opinion has, respectively, developed threefold. In one point of view, religion is by nature contradictory to the democratic order, it is in a sense its direct opposite. In other words, we face a choice of opting either for religion or democracy. Supporters of an alternative viewpoint claim that in the long run, a democratic system is not viable without the basis of notions such as religion, and therefore religion does play a vital part in the social order. It serves members of the public by satisfying those of their needs that do not belong to the scope of duties performed by the state and its institutions. Finally, the third approach basically acknowledges the fact that no definitive claims can be made as to the possibility of agreement between religion and democracy. I must admit that the latter is closest to my personal stance in this respect. Naturally, through careful selection of examples, arguments to support the first or the second of the mentioned opinions can be easily produced. There have been numerous examples of academic and journalistic articles advocating one of the clear-cut standpoints, which seem not to leave much room for discussion. However, the issue becomes far more multifarious when taking into account the complexity of religious and political issues analysed in both theoretical and practical perspective.

religion democracy political theory

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Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 104-111
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009008
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200908.pdf

Streszczenie:

A study of the Euro-barometer performed at the end of January and beginning of February 2009 showed that not even 34% of the surveyed in all the 27 countries of the European Union declares the desire to cast their vote in the approaching election to the Euro-community. 15% of the respondents answered that they would de! nitely not vote in the coming election. The participation in the European Parliament Elections has fallen from election to election. This tendency persists and no signs of improvement of the situation can be seen. In 1994, 56.8% of the entitled to vote participated in the elections in all the member countries. Ten years later, only 45.6% of voters cast their votes. New member countries with low level of interest in European matters have considerably contributed to the fall in the level of legitimisation of the European Parliament.

parliamentary elections European Parliament European Union elections

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Author: Małgorzata Wnorowska
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 112-122
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009009
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200909.pdf

Streszczenie:

Adopting a new face – a mask – might be one of the conditions for a comeback to the political scene. A political face is not a synonym for identity because it is not shaped by the public, but it consists a sort of mask which is put on a politician by his/her image advisors and next presented to the public. This paper attempts to verify a thesis that a political face is not a synonym but an unstable element of a political image. The political image again is an equivalent for socio-political identity. Most definitions which appear in works on political communication treat the political image as a kind of Ego reflected in a way similar to the concept of Marzena Cichosz, who indicates, that the image consists of a set of features, which in the opinion of the public the subject possesses.

political image public relations

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Author: Roman Bäcker
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 123-129
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009010
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200910.pdf

Streszczenie:

Both in the Polish and Russian language the term ‘nation’ is understood in a slightly different way than the English word ‘nation’. It is understood not only in cultural but also political terms, and in numerous contexts it is used to denote ‘the people’ or an ‘ethnic nation/ethnos’. Thus, when we use words ‘nation, nationality, narodnost’, sometimes only the context makes it possible to decide whether we mean the nation, nation or ethnos. However, this lack of clear distinction in the colloquial discourse should not make one conclude that there are not fully shaped nations in Poland and Russia. It is just that the colloquial discourse fails to notice these vague distinctions. In the scientific discourse in both countries, these di! erentiations have been precisely defined and used for a long time.

national identity Russia Poland

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Author: Jakub Potulski
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 130-138
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009011
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200911.pdf

Streszczenie:

Current discussion on the consequences of modernity, and social effects of the ongoing globalization of the world, more and more frequently focus on the increasing number of signs of the world’s unification, and at the same time tendencies to divide it not necessarily according to the designated national borders, are becoming visible. Towards the end of the 20th century, factors conducive to integration of the world and communities that inhabit it, began to become more apparent. Integration complements, clubs and harmonizes particular spheres of human existence and activity. It is a process, during which the structure of integrating elements alters (they frequently undergo a forced change and adapt to each other) and the bond is subject to evolve. It is a dynamic process that creates new quality.

political conflict social policy globalization

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Author: Marceli Burdelski
Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 139-156
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009012
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200912.pdf

Streszczenie:

China is today the most populated country in the world. The end of the twentieth century resulted in the growth of international importance of China. It was reflected in the influence of Chinese diplomacy and economy on the global international system. ! e recent international success of China do not overshadow the fact that China is still a middle scale world power. The area of North-Eastern Asia has played the key role in the security system of the People’s Republic of China.

Chinese policy Chinese diplomacy China

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Author: Magdalena Musiał–Karg
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 157-167
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009013
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200913.pdf

Streszczenie:

Recent worldwide convergence of telecommunication and information technologies and dynamic development of mass media lead to noticeable changes in functioning of contemporary countries and societies. Currently, modern information and telecommunication technologies (ICT) begin to play greater role and filter down to almost every field of contemporary human life becoming a very popular subject of researches. Information revolution, that is a rapid technological development, within the scope of computers, communication processes and so" ware (involving substantial decrease in the costs of processing and sharing information), is the driving force behind globalisation. As a result, many social spheres of men remain greatly influenced by modern technologies. Easy access to information (being a consequence of development of the Internet, television and mobile communications) affects millions of people in the world, and also changes rules of social life in a broader perspective. Increasingly greater social impact of telecommunication and information technologies and growing political importance of the Internet (as a form of ICT) seem to be vital arguments that substantiate the usefulness of this study. The aim was to answer question about influence of the Internet on political life, and thus its application into contemporary democracies. Answers to the above questions should be backed up with data concerning the usage of ICT (mostly the Internet) in various political processes. The further analysis include three phenomena: informing, communicating and voting. 

internet Mass Media politics

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Author: Andrzej Chodubski
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 168-185
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009014
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200914.pdf

Streszczenie:

Generally idea of united Europe has to guarantee peace and stabilization on it territory. At what there is dispute in aspect of stated of this territory. It notices itself, that borders of Europe wasn’t definite; it treats this particularly it concerns eastern border, which was movable. Trying to show borders of Europe usually it calls itself three conceptions. First from cancellation oneself to empire of Charles Great. Ruler that created monarchy in conditions of threat expansion of Arabs. That notion came into being European also, which fighting knights with Arabias invasions on Pyrenean Peninsula were de! ned. Heirs of Great Charles, Ottons, divided own territory on four large regions: Italy, Germany, Gaul and Sclavinia. Eastern border came to river Elbe: with run of years Otton’s territory included Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland. Second conception was built on so-called eastern schisms from 16th July of 1054 year. Christian world divided (orthodox) and western (roman catholic onto eastern order, called also catholic). Line of division ran resource from Adriatic to Danube, existing in XX century called state Yugoslavia; on Balkans they be shaped then Slavic communities; Serbians as well as Bulgarians tied with Orthodox Church, Slovenians and Croats with Catholicism. Alongside with Christianization civilization border shi! ed beyond Danube reaching for Arctic borders of continent. In Catholic circle there were Hungarians, western Slavs (Czechs, Slovaks, poles), Balts, Estonians and Finns; meanwhile in circle of order orthodox church found themselves Romanians and eastern Slavs (Ukrainians, Byelorussian).2 Russian diplomatist Wasilij Tatiszew on beginning XVIII age advanced third conception, recognizing mountains and river Ural for eastern border of Europe; he showed, that one should Russia to Europe.

globalisation international relations

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Author: Grzegorz Ronek
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 186-205
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009015
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200915.pdf

Streszczenie:

One of the most important factors a! ecting British politics is its membership in the European Communities, which has already had massive implications for this country. The relationship between Britain and Europe has always been problematic. In Britain there has been little enthusiasm for European integration per se, and equally little understanding of the enthusiasm felt on the continent. Europe has been seen as a menace rather than an opportunity and very few British politicians have attempted to argue (as is commonplace on the continent) that monetary union, for instance, is the only way of regaining control over financial policy.The European idea of pursuing economic integration as a means to political union has also been met with blank incomprehension, if not outright hostility. Britain has always been attempting to slow down the process of integration and, consequently, has often fallen behind and had no choice but to catch up.

Britain-Europe relations British politics

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Author: Paweł Sus
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 206-220
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009016
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200916.pdf

Streszczenie:

Turkey is a country that lies on two continents. It is o! en regarded as a bridge between Europe and Asia, or between East and West. This in fact implies that its inhabitants participate in two separate and somewhat conicting sets of political values. On the one hand, those are the values of western liberal democracy. As a country in which periodic elections are held and there is a competition between political parties, Turkey is a democracy at least in the procedural or formal sense. On the other hand, there are oriental values related to the authoritarian political culture that goes back to the Ottoman Empire and to political Islam, that are often regarded as incompatible with democracy. The in uence of these values on the Turkish political system has made some scholars to argue that a fully- edged liberal democracy is impossible in this country. Furthermore, the existence of these different sets of values had often in the past led to a political confrontation. For decades there has been a struggle in Turkey between the secular center, represented by the Kemalist establishment, and the peripheral political religious movements.

Asia-Europe relations Turkish politics Turkey

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Author: Donat Mierzejewski
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 221-232
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009017
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200917.pdf

Streszczenie:

An essential element of international security policy shaping are documents of strategic or doctrinal character. They define the main assumptions of state security politics in the context of changes of global character. Undoubtedly this process is influenced by strategic concepts of two world powers: the USA and Russian Federation, both in the cold war past as well as now – main agents and creators of world security policy. this article will analyze the National Security Strategy of the USA, the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation, the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation and the War Doctrine of the Russian Federation.

international policy security politics USA Russia

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Author: Małgorzata Kamola–Cieślik
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 233-244
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009018
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200918.pdf

Streszczenie:

Shipyards plants were a significant element of Polish government marine policies between 2005 and 2008. The decision made by the Council of Ministers, aimed at taking countermeasures against the credit balance of the following companies of the ship building sector: Stocznia Gdynia S.A., Stocznia Szczecińska Nowa Sp. z o.o. (SSN) and Stocznia Gdańsk Grupa Stoczni Gdynia S.A. (Stocznia Gdańsk GSG S.A.). The only way to achieve economic stability was first through a complete overhaul of their functioning and then through a privatization process. After Poland joined the EU on 1st May, 2004, the process of restructuring these companies was being conducted using public financial aid, to which the European Commission had to give its permission. While becoming the EU member state, Poland was obliged to inform the European Commission of its intention to ! nancially help the shipyards. The Commission‘s decision in this matter depended on how it assessed the plan of restructuring these companies. 

marine policies Poland Polish politics

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Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 245-248
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009019
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200919.pdf

Streszczenie:

In 2008, a very interesting and modern work published by the Institute of Public Affairs, could be noticed, entitled Subwencje z budżetu państwa dla partii politycznych. Jawność i kontrola [Subsidies for Political Parties from the State’s Budget: Transparency and Control]. As the editor of the book, Jarosław Zbieranek, states in the introduction, the ISP [the Institute of Public Affairs] has been initiating research for years, as well as organising academic sessions, whose core is an analysis of the Polish solutions as to the fi nancing of political parties passed by an amendment of the political parties act of 12 April 2001. Resultingly, the reviewed work constitutes an outcome of these activities. It is a conclusion from the research project Transparentność fi nansów partii politycznych [Transparency of Finances of Political Parties] of 2008, whose members devoted their research predominantly to the evaluation of two, considerable from the point of view of proper and clear functioning of democracy, issues, namely the case of transparency of the parties’ use of fi nancial means from the state’s budget, as well as the control of their expenditure.

Jarosław Zbieranek book review political parties

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Author: Ireneusz Kraś
Institution: Jan Dlugosz Academy of Częstochowa (Poland)
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 248-253
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009020
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200920.pdf

Streszczenie:

The processes of international integration have been noticed for years. The inconvenience with currency exchange has been perceived long ago by the representatives of classical economic thought – David Ricardo and the father of the common currency idea – J. Stuart Mill. He thought there is so much barbarism in many transactions in civilized countries that almost all independent states protect themselves by keeping their own currency. Although there is some inconvenience for those countries and their neighbours.

Ireneusz Kraś Michał Pronobis Eurozone book review

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Author: Michał Gałan
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 254-257
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009021
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200921.pdf

Streszczenie:

The discussed book by Stephen Tanner is not the author’s debut. He has been analyzing various issues of military history for a long time. He is the author of works on the great retreats of armies during various periods of history, the fortunes of American airmen operating in Switzerland during World War II and the history of Afghanistan. Tanner’s book can be considered as the author’s personal opinion on the military policy of the United States a! er the Cold War.

Cold War military history Michał Gałan Stephen Tanner book review

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Author: Wojciech Maguś
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 258-260
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009022
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200922.pdf

Streszczenie:

In times we live the system of social communication is developing much faster than other fi elds of social life. Attempt to describe this phenomenon in the context of the media is the book of Stanisław Michalczyk –  e Media Society. The book is written in form of an academic elaboration it consists of eight chapters. Each of one is dedicated to separate issues.

Media Society Wojciech Maguś Stanisław Michalczyk book review

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Author: Mariusz Popławski
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 260-262
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009023
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200923.pdf

Streszczenie:

Professor Ludwik Habuda is a grand specialist in the field of broadly understood research on local and regional self-governments. €The value of his studies is even greater as he tackles with issues concerning not the current legal status of such bodies, but he tries to get to the core of the problem by concentrating on a more demanding topic – the key features of a decentralized and a centralized structure.

Mariusz Popławski Ludwik Habuda public administration book review

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Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 263-267
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009024
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200924.pdf

Streszczenie:

From 20 to 21 April 2009, in the cinema room of the Town Hall in Toruń, there was a two-day National Academic Conference entitled “Local Government: What it Should be Like?”. The conference was organised by the Institute of Political Studies at the University of Nicolaus Copernicus (UMK). The session’s initiator, as well as the academic director, was Prof. PhD (Prof. Dr Hab.) Alfred Lutrzykowski, a specialist and an expert of the subject of local governments. The organiser of the session chose as his main goal to explain the idea of local government in a state, as well as to define the direction of local governments development in Poland and in the world. Local government is an important and inseparable element, which decides about the level of democracy of both society and the state. It constitutes an arena, on which both smaller and bigger interests of various social groups are defined, but it is also an area in which the interests can be fully presented.

local government report

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Author: Robert Gawłowski
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 268-271
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009025
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200925.pdf

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On the 21st and 22nd of May 2009, an International Scientific Conference "The Faces of Asian Statehood. Civilization, Cultural, Political, Legal and Economic Aspects" was held in Toruń, Poland. The event took place thanks to the joint initiative of the Asia and Paci! c Society and its Chairman Adam Marszałek – the main organizing institution, Institute of Political Science & Institute of International Relations – University of Nicolaus Copernicus, Toruń, Poland, as well as local (President of Toruń) and regional (Marshal of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Region) authorities. Joanna Marszałek- -Kawa was the Scientific Manager of the sessions. Members of the Organizing Committee include also Lucyna Osińska, Robert Gawłowski, Joanna Modrzyńska and Mariusz Popławski.

Asian Statehood Cultural Political report

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