Author: Anna Zasuń
E-mail: a.zasun@ajd.czest.pl
Institution: University of Jan Długosz in Częstochowa (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 257-271
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016020
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016020.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of the article is to present the psychological roots of fundamentalism, which can be found in each type of the phenomenon, and also an attempt to show fundamentalism, as the configuration of certain personality traits. As the basis for such an interpretation of fundamentalism, serve the psychological approach, which relate to the personality, cognitive style, refer to the prejudices, as well as to the concept of authoritarian personality and its constitutive characteristics. Article raised the question of so–called “fundamentalist personality” on the basis of diversity of manifestations of this phenomenon and its correlation with the concepts of authoritarianism and dogmatism. Author also addresses psychological category of attitude, which is the starting point in the discussion of the phenomena, such as fundamentalism or nationalism. In the background of considerations is an attempt to organize knowledge on fundamentalism, taking into account the historical roots of the phenomenon, and also, as a complementary reflection, a legitimacy of identifying fundamentalism with terrorism. 

religion personality modernity dogmatism authoritarianism fundamentalism

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Author: Marcin Gajek
E-mail: marcin.gajek@civitas.edu.pl
Institution: Collegium Civitas in Warsaw (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 272-287
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016021
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016021.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper discusses some fundamental differences between Aristotelian and modern conceptions of the state. It focuses its attention on the early liberal thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, and contrasts the theory of state developed by them with the classical republican ideal described by Aristotle. As I will demonstrate main differences come down to (1) distinct ideas concerning the state’s origins (and especially human motivations behind establishing the state), (2) divergent convictions about the role of the state and its ethical dimension; and finally (3) different beliefs concerning basic feelings and passions which sustain existence of political community. I argue that on the basis of Stagirite’s philosophy it is possible to question whether civic association described by the precursors of liberal political thought is actually the state. In conclusion, I signalize the problem of serious limitations of contemporary liberal democracies (or even their internal contradictions) resulting from their attempt to follow an ideal of an ideologically neutral state. 

republicanism John Locke Thomas Hobbes Aristotle liberalism state

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Author: Ismayil Isayev
E-mail: ismayil_ir@yahoo.com
Institution: University of Vienna (Austria)
Author: Shamkhal Abilov
E-mail: shamkhalabilov@yahoo.com
Institution: Qafqaz University in Baku (Azerbaijan) & Leipzig University (Germany)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 291-303
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016022
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016022.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article seeks to study the consequences of the Nagorno–Karabakh war for Azerbaijan: thus analyzes findings on occupied territories, casualties, and damages of the war from economic, political, and social perspectives. The utmost brutality and atrocity of the overall conflict is memorized with Khojaly Massacre committed against Azerbaijani civilians on 26 February 1992. Hence, the article unveils evidences through the scrutiny of secondary data from academic sources, publications, and news materials published by international media. The particular focus of the study is concentrated on to what extend special plan was prepared deliberately for ethnic cleansing in Khojaly during the Nagorno–Karabakh war. 

Azerbaijan Khojaly Massacre The Nagorno–Karabakh War Armenia

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Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
E-mail: mkobierecki@uni.lodz.pl
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 304-316
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016023
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016023.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of the paper is to investigate ping–pong diplomacy between the Unites States and China, which was used by both countries as a diplomatic tool, aimed at achieving political rapprochement despite ideological dissonance and conflict over Taiwan. Both governments were seeking a way to establish closer relations but the circumstances prevented them from traditional diplomatic contacts. Sports exchange proved to be a convenient solution. In the paper the Author attempts to verify a hypothesis on a subsequent legacy of the ping–pong diplomacy in American foreign policy. The study allowed to determine reasons for the need to employ sport in order to establish closer relations between two hostile actors of international relations. It is an attempt to answer a question concerning the intentional or coincidental character of the analysed sports exchange. The paper is an empirical case study on one of the prime examples of positive sports diplomacy and was conducted with the use of decision–making. 

politics and sport China-USA relations ping-pong diplomacy sports diplomacy international relations

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Author: Ewelina Waśko-Owsiejczuk
E-mail: wasko-owsiejczuk@uwb.edu.pl
Institution: University of Białystok (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 317-336
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016024
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016024.pdf

Streszczenie:

The American strategy to combat the ‘Islamic State’ rests on four pillars. The first is to conduct systematic air campaigns against the terrorists. The second involves increasing support for forces fighting the jihadists on the ground. The third is based on the strengthening of international cooperation in counter–terrorism operations. The fourth involves the provision of humanitarian aid to civilians displaced from the territories occupied by the jihadists. This article analyzes the assumptions, tactics, the most important decisions and actions of the American administration to combat the ‘Islamic State’. It is an attempt to provide answers to the questions: why has there been a growth of extremism in the Middle East? Why is the ‘Islamic State’ a new form of terrorist threat? How does it differ from other terrorist organizations? How was the ‘Islamic State’ created? What actions have been taken by the international coalition led by the United States in the fight against the jihadists in the Middle East? Is the strategy taken up by the United States effective? Does the defeat of the ‘Islamic State’ require the involvement of US ground forces in Iraq and Syria?

extremism Syria Iraq United States Islamic State terrorism

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Author: Monika Sus
E-mail: monika.sus@eui.eu
Institution: Hertie School of Governance (Germany) & European University Institute (Italy)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 337-350
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016025
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016025.pdf

Streszczenie:

The drafting process of the EU Global Strategy published in June 2016 has differed distinctively from the formulation of the European Security Strategy in 2003 mainly because of its consultative character. The coordination of the process was ensured by the High Representative who brokered between interests of individual Member States. Looking through the lens of deliberative intergovernmentalism, the paper examines patterns and channels of the cooperation between Poland and the EEAS throughout the strategy–making process. It attempts to shed light on the officially repeated claims on the Member States’ ownership of the document and their active participation in the consultations. The article argues that only with national diplomacies as strategy–makers, the document would have a chance to enhance the EU’s ’will to project power’ in its neighbourhood and beyond. However, the salience of the new strategy among the high political level in the Member States reveals to be crucial for a sustainable contribution to the deliberative policy formulation. 

EU's foreign policy deliberative intergovernmentalism European External Action Service Member States High Representative EU Global Strategy

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Author: Bartłomiej H. Toszek
E-mail: clermont@wp.pl
Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 353-366
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016026
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016026.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Welsh identity is undisputable in national (i.e. ethnic), social, cultural and even economic dimensions however it is doubtful in political sphere because vast majority of the Welsh still cannot decide if they are more Welsh or British. The ’double identity’ dilemma was visible especially during devolution referendums voting in 1979, 1997 and 2011 when non–political motives were often much more determinative then the factor of belonging to the Welsh community in political meaning. Thus, answering to the question about devolution referendum role in shaping political dimension of Welshness requires thoroughly analyse of the mentioned referendums results as an evident figures of public support for establishing legal and institutional guarantees of maintaining and developing all aspects of national identity. In the article has been contained description how the Welsh relations to the idea of self–determination (in frames of the wide internal autonomy) have changed by last 35 years. An author shows also barriers and factors fostering this process. 

Welsh language Welshness national identity Wales devolution United Kingdom

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Author: Agnieszka Szpak
E-mail: aszpak@umk.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 367-381
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016027
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016027.pdf

Streszczenie:

Cities have been researched mostly in terms of its economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect, there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. In this context, the article examines the new paradigm of urban development within the human security, namely the right to the city. The author indicates to the growing role of cities for human security and to mutual relations between the right to the city and the concept of human security. The subject matter is indeed as fascinating as fascinating are cities themselves. They are dynamic, energetic, innovative and constantly evolving. The general thesis of the article is that cities adopting the adequate model of urban development such as the one envisioned in the right to the city may and do greatly contribute to human security. 

urban development human security right to the city city

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Author: Sadir Surkhay Mammadov
E-mail: centrum.polskie.bsu@gmail.com
Institution: Baku Slavic University (Azerbaijan)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 385-390
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016028
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016028.pdf

Streszczenie:

The opinion report considers relations between international norms, Azerbaijan’s national legal system and political understandings of the Nagorno–Karabakh conflict. It discusses classification of Armenian actions in a context of the international law’s development and an impact of international regulations on national criminal codes. Therefore, it presents the Azerbaijani perspective on major political aspects of the Nagorno–Karabakh War and international response to Armenian occupation of Azerbaijan’s territories. Moreover, it evaluates Armenian actions in the region with reference to the definition of genocide and international policy of its prevention. In general, the opinion report shows how the Azerbaijani society understands the conflict and how it may be classified on the basis of the Soviet law (as acts of terror has started in the late 1980s), the international law and the contemporary Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As a result, it is not only a report that introduces the Azerbaijan’s perspective on the issue, but it can also be recognised as an interesting source to understand how the Azerbaijani people label actions of their neighbouring nation. 

criminal code legal system genocide international law The United Nations Nagorno–Karabakh War Azerbaijan opinion Armenia

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Author: Iwona Hofman
E-mail: iwonahofman@gmail.com
Institution: Maria Curie–Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 391-398
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016029
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016029.pdf

Streszczenie:

An attempt at reconstruction of the New Journalism model results from the observation of the crisis symptoms of journalism as a profession and mission (social responsibility). On the grounds of journalists’ and theoreticians’ statements, it is possible to establish a hierarchy of values of the serious journalism, which a social demand is growing for. The New Journalism is most frequently described as the conscious journalism, which provides spectrum of needs and views of recipients. This type of journalism is committed, independent, functioning in the public sphere, credible, realizing educational role. These attributes pertain to journalism. The paper includes standpoints, for example, of S. Michalczyk, B. Hennessy, P. Mancini, S. Russ–Mohl, S. Bratkowski, R. Kapuściński. 

crisis of media professionalism serious journalism opinion

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