Author: Krzysztof Trzciński
Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 168-185
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017111.pdf

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the validity of the thesis that in Indonesia one can find institutions that characterize two power-sharing models which are considered opposites of one another in political theory – centripetalism and consociationalism. In consequence, the Indonesian power-sharing system should be viewed as a hybrid, or mixed, system, and not a typically centripetal system as is usually the case in the literature. At the beginning of this article, a short analysis of Indonesia's political situation is given for the purpose of defining the factors which determined the introduction of inter-segmental power-sharing solutions in that country. This is followed by a description of the specificity of consociationalism and centripetalism. The article goes on to discuss specific institutions of both power-sharing models which exist in Indonesia and ends with some concluding remarks on the thesis advanced at the outset. 

  • Ananta, A., Arifin, E. N., Hasbullah, M. S., Handayani, N. B., & Pramono, A. (2013). Changing Ethnic Composition: Indonesia, 2000-2010. 
    Retrieved from: 
  • Aspinall, E. (2010). “The Irony of Success”. Journal of Democracy, 21(2), pp. 20-34.
  • Basedau, M. (2011). “Managing Ethnic Conflict: The Menu of Institutional Engineering”. GIGA Working Papers, 171, pp. 1-29.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia from 18 August 1945 with later amendments. (1945). 
    Retrieved from: 
  • DPR. (2016). Tentang DPR. Retrieved from: 
  • Ellis, A. (2005). Constitutional Reform in Indonesia: A Retrospective. Retrieved from: 
  • Elmslie, J. (2010). “West Papuan Demographic Transition and the 2010 Indonesian Census: “Slow Motion Genocide” or not?”. CPACS Working Paper, 11(1), pp. 1-10.
  • Emmerson, D.K. (2000). “Will Indonesia Survive?”. Foreign Affairs, 79(3), pp. 95-106.
  • Gayo, L. (2014). Inilah 81 Calon Terpilih Anggota DPRA 2014-2019 dari 23 Kabupaten Kota. 
    Retrieved from:
  • Horowitz, D. L. (2003). “Electoral Systems and Their Goals: A Primer for Decision-Makers”. Journal of Democracy, 14(4), pp. 115-127.
  • Horowitz, D. L. (2013). Constitutional Change and Democracy in Indonesia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Horowitz, D. L. (2014). “Ethnic Power Sharing: Three Big Problems”. Journal of Democracy, 25(2), pp. 5-20.
  • IFES. (2014). Elections in Indonesia: 2014 National Legislative Elections: Frequently Asked Questions. 
    Retrieved from:
  • Index Mundi. (2015). Indonesia Demographics Profile 2014. 
    Retrieved from:
  • Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 8/2012 on the General Election of Members of House of Representatives, People’s Representatives Council and Regional House of Representatives. (2012). 
    Retrieved from:
  • Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 11/2006 on the Governing of Aceh. (2006). Retrieved from: 
  • Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 21/2001 on Special Autonomy for the Papua Province. (2001). 
    Retrieved from:
  • Lijphart, A. (1980). Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
  • Lijphart, A. (1995). “Multiethnic Democracy”. In S.M. Lipset (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Democracy, 3, (pp. 853-865). London: Routledge.
  • Lijphart, A. (2008). Thinking about Democracy: Power Sharing and Majority Rule in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
  • Macdonald, G. (2013). Election Rules and Identity Politics: Understanding the Success of Multi-ethnic Parties in Indonesia. 
    Retrieved from:
  • Max, S.R. (2012). How Many Provinces Does Indonesia Need? Retrieved from:
  • McCulloch, A. (2013a). “Does Moderation Pay? Centripetalism in Deeply Divided Societies”. Ethnopolitics, 12(2), pp. 111-132.
  • McCulloch, A. (2013b). “The Track Record of Centripetalism in Deeply Divided Places”. In J. McEvoy & B. O’Leary (Eds.), Power-Sharing in Deeply Divided Places, (pp. 94-111). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • McGibbon, R. (2004). Secessionist Challenges in Aceh and Papua: Is Special Autonomy the Solution? Washington DC: East-West Center Washington.
  • Mietzner, M. (2008). “Comparing Indonesia’s Party Systems of the 1950s and the Post-Suharto Era: From Centrifugal to Centripetal Inter-Party Competition”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 39/3, pp. 431-453.
  • MoU between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement signed in Helsinki on the 15 of August 2005. (2005). 
    Retrieved from:
  • Mote, O. (2016) Special Autonomy Issue. Retrieved from:
  • Prasetiamartati, B. (2013). Policy and Participatory Local Governance in Indonesia. 
    Retrieved from: 
  • Reilly, B. (2007). Democracy and Diversity: Political Engineering in the Asia-Pacific. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Reilly, B. (2011a). Centripetalism. In K. Cordell & S. Wolff (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict (pp. 288-299). London: Routledge.
  • Reilly, B. (2011b). “Centripetalism: Cooperation, Accommodation, and Integration”. In S. Wolff & Ch. Yakinthou (Eds.), Conflict Management in Divided Societies: Theories and Practice (pp. 57-64). New York: Routledge.
  • Schneier, E. (2005). The Role of Constitution-building Processes in Democratization: Case Study - Indonesia: The Constitution-building Process in Post-Suharto Indonesia. 
    Retrieved from: 
  • Shapiro, I. (2006). Stan teorii demokracji (The State of Democratic Theory). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
  • Sisk, T. D. (1996). Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
  • Taylor, R. (2009). Consociational Theory: McGarry and O’Leary and the Northern Ireland Conflict. London: Routledge.
  • Trzciński, K. (2016a). “How Theoretically Opposite Models of Interethnic Power-Sharing Can Complement Each Other and Contribute to Political Stabilization: The Case of Nigeria”. Politeja, 42(3), pp. 53-73.
  • Trzciński, K. (2016b). “The Consociational Addition to Indonesia’s Centripetalism as a Tactic of the Central Authorities: The Case of Papua”. Hemispheres, 31(4), pp. 5-20.
  • Wilford, R. (2003). “Power-Sharing”. In I. McLean & A. McMillan (Eds.), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, (pp. 434-444). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wolff, S. (2010). “Consociationalism, Power Sharing, and Politics at the Center”. In R. A. Denemark (Ed.), The International Studies Encyclopedia. Volume Two (pp. 535-556). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Wolff, S. (2012). “Complex Power Sharing”. In G. K. Brown & A. Langer (Eds.), Elgar Handbook of Civil War and Fragile States (pp. 457-477). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • World Bank (2016). Indonesia. 
    Retrieved from:
  • Worldometers (2016). Indonesia Population. 
    Retrieved from:

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart