Author: Bartosz Wypych
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 163-184
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013011
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013011.pdf

Streszczenie:

The question of discrimination, as far as it is considered in the field of philosophy, cannot be perceived as a problem which can be effectively combated. Even the most precise diagnosis of human nature will not restrain people from defining others as evil and inferior. The most universal and spacious conventions, declarations, cards or bills will not solve the problem either. They can be regarded as an example of applied philosophy at most. On the other hand, we should pose the question what the world would look like if political pragmatism were the main obligatory rule. Thus, the situation finds us between philosophical wishful thinking about a global order free from discrimination and macro – or micropolitical pragmatism.

Postmodern Human Rights Discrimination democracy human rights

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Author: Marek Górka
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 185-206
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013012
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013012.pdf

Streszczenie:

The changes in political life in Poland in the period 2005–2011, which restructured the existing balance of power (dominance of post-Solidarity parties at the expense of the post-communist party) force us to consider whether the party system evolution involves changes in the sphere of ideological divisions. But there also arises another question about the crisis of the left, which could mean the end of the previous model, intergroup rivalry. But there is no doubt that it occurred after 2005 events. Initiated processes took a completely different direction than those in the 90s. The purpose of the article is to explain the ongoing political disputes, and also attempt to answer the question: what factors shape the profile of program-ideological political formations in Poland.

Polish Political System Political Decisions Political political system

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Author: Ryszard Stefański
Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 207-212
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013013
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013013.pdf

Streszczenie:

Andrzej Wierciński (1930–2003) wrote that the period Enlightenment (he did not use the term, however) saw the separation of philosophy and religion as a consequence of the development of empirical sciences, mathematics and logic: The rationalised philosophical world-model was advanced to the rank of an ICS [Ideological Control Subsystem]. Its institutional carriers were bourgeois groups and political parties which caused the first breakdown in the feudal system during the French and American Revolution. Mechanicism was therefore to replace animism as a principal generator of the world-view. Wierciński’s approach does not contradict the perspective generally accepted by historians. Probably never before had the fight against revealed religions, including Roman Catholicism, been so intense. The best example is the attitude of Enlightenment authors towards Catholicism and church institutions.

Enlightenment Concepts Religion in Social Control religion

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Author: Krzysztof Kaczmarek
Institution: Independent Researcher (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 213-217
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013014
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013014.pdf

Streszczenie:

Global warming is a fact. The reason for this can only be a guess. There are hypotheses claiming that the climate changes are consequences of human activities. Other hypotheses say that such occurrences appear regularly every few thousand years. As early as the beginning of the twentieth century some scientists noticed indicators of the growth of the global average temperature. Regardless of the reason global warming is observable mostly in polar areas. Nowadays about four million people live in the Arctic including native inhabitants. Global warming impacts on all of these including indigenous peoples of the Arctic whose cultural identities have always been related to nature. They have always lived in harmony together with nature, they have been a part of it and have never tried to fight against it. A changing climate can make them give up the way their ancestors used to live. Afterwards it can cause the disappearance of their languages and cultures that languages are parts of. Besides for many decades all indigenous people had been thought to be at a lower development level than new arrivals so today almost all languages spoken by indigenous peoples of the Arctic are endangered. All indigenous peoples of the Arctic have common points in their histories like deprivation of lands and suppression of languages and traditions. Most of their ancient customs and religions are forgotten but there are many material marks that are important for future generations. It is very important to preserve the marks and the knowledge of their languages because the value of them is priceless. 

climate changes Arctic Peoples Arctic Cultural Identities Cultural

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Author: Grzegorz Ronek
Institution: John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 218-243
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013015
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013015.pdf

Streszczenie:

One of the most important factors affecting British politics is its membership to the European Communities (EC) and latter the European Union (EU), which has already had massive implications for this country. Th e relationship between Britain and Europe has always been problematic. In Britain there has been little enthusiasm for European integration per se, and equally little understanding of the enthusiasm felt on the continent. Europe has been seen as a menace rather than an opportunity and very few British politicians have attempted to argue (as is commonplace on the continent) about monetary union, for instance, it is the only way of regaining control over financial policy. The European idea of pursuing economic integration as a means to political union has also been met with blank incomprehension, if not outright hostility. Britain has always been attempting to slow down the process of integration and, consequently, has often fallen behind and had no choice but to catch up. However, the portrayal of Britain as a “difficult partner” or “laggard leader” in European affairs is only partly justified. Based on its specific understanding of national sovereignty, Britain has developed a much more pragmatic and instrumental approach towards Europe than most of its partners on the continent. Nevertheless, the country was a strong driving force in favor of integration in many crucial policy fields like the single market or trade policy. According to Alan Milward, the process of European integration entails “pooling” the sovereignty in order to protect national interests and extend national governments’ control of their own destinies. In Britain, contrary to the continent, national interests dictated a different line and it was only when exclusion from the Communities appeared to threaten them that the then British government began to accept the need for membership. The very different motivation behind British entry ensured that the British aims inside the Communities would be limited or “defensive”. The most controversial aspect of Britain’s membership of the EC has always related to “erosion” of its sovereignty. 

European Communities Britain's Membership in the European Union Britain European Union

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Author: Wojciech Stankiewicz
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 244-267
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013016
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013016.pdf

Streszczenie:

Terrorist violence has a long history in the United Kingdom and the Government has a long experience in adopting the legal measures to counter the danger. It was the Irish terrorist activity, which started in the XIX century and continued almost till the end of the XX century, that caused the developing of a well – regarded competency in counter – terrorism in the UK. Nevertheless, the terrorists attacks of September 11, 2001 and attacks in Great Britain on 7 and 21 of July 2005 compiled the UK Government to change its counter – terrorism policy. The UK had to provide legislation which could deal with the new terror provided by extreme radical Islamic networks waging a global jihad. The UK Government started to deal with this new international terrorism, by introducing the new anti – terrorist acts in 2001, 2005 and 2006. The Islamic terrorist treat started to reform the institutions for domestic counter – terrorism and create new international relations among the CT activities of national governments.

Response to Terrorism terrorism United Kingdom

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Author: Karolina J. Helnarska
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 268-278
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013017
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013017.pdf

Streszczenie:

France after World War II was in a difficult situation. This involved a loss of position, not only as a superpower in the world but in Europe. Superpower, the global position of France, decided to rebuild, after the new president was elected in June 1959, Gen. Ch. de Gaulle. According to his conception of a foreign policy for France it should have a global dimension, supported by the independent French defense not only as a conventional but also nuclear power. Gen. Ch. De Gaulle took the position that France having regard to its independence in the political, military, economic and cultural center should not submit to any of the blocks. Independence in the foreign policy of France was understood as the freedom to determine their own place in the world, freely determine their fate, the defense of vital national interests and full freedom in the choice of ends, means and methods of foreign policy.

Defense National security of France national security

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Author: Beata Jaroszewska
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 279-296
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013018
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013018.pdf

Streszczenie:

After a few decades of transformation China is becoming a major contender for the number two position in the world. Is it really possible? Will China balance the power of the United States? Today the United States supremacy is so great that it seems to be undeniable. The situation was similar at the end of the twentieth century when U.S. domination was obvious and any other reality was hard to imagine. Recently though, more and more often America’s political decisions are criticised. A few decades ago, in Beijing a new idea was developed. The essence of that idea was to transform the People’s Republic of China into a superpower. Since China was very vast and densely populated, but mostly a poor and backward country, it was a very daring vision. Years of consistent and painful reforms changed the way the world is looking at China, even though some of them were not accepted by international opinion.

Position of China in the Global Economy global economy China

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Author: Karol Kościelniak
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 297-316
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013019
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013019.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, just like other countries, functions in determined conditions which influence the way of determining and understanding the security and shaping of the security policy. There prevails a division to problems of an internal and external nature. While talking about and indicating global problems which in consequence can influence the internal security of a country, challenges and threats that countries face need to be noticed. These are ecological, demographic, political, economic and social threats. While looking at factors determining the internal security of a country, special attention needs to be paid to the state of relations and its surroundings, a state of system stability, a level of social peace, a level of public safety and a level of public order.

21st Century Internal Security of Vietnam Doi Moi Influence

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Author: Iwona Massaka
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 317-330
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013020
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013020.pdf

Streszczenie:

Research on relations between art and politics has its tradition. However, it mainly refers to literature, whose part, as far as its authors’ intentions are concerned, is of a political character, in a lesser degree – of a picture. Sound, especially if it is not linked to a text and/or a picture, is considerably more seldom analyzed from the point of view of its importance in politics. As long as a word and a picture happen to convey unequivocal political meaning, qualifi ed as such by most recipients, sound cannot be obviously considered a political message. It is questionable whether music can convey any meaning in whatever sense. If one can manage to suppress this doubt, it will result in a question how to construe the senses conveyed through the medium of melodic – rhythmic structures. However, the findings in the field of widely understood humanities affirm that music serves as a creator’s message directed to both individual and collective receivers. Political science studies often bring up a matter of communication between authorities and the subjects (in authoritarian regimes), and also between representatives of a nation or people claiming their role and electorate (in democratic regimes). At the end of the 1960s, American and Canadian scientists made room for music, one of the most widespread communicators, i. a. in political sphere. At that time, interdisciplinary teams including American sociologists, political scientists, culture and media experts undertook multi – faceted research, focused mainly on popular music.

music political science

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